Transhumanist Plot Points
Season 1's transhumanist plot point focuses largely on the re-animation of Agent (Phil) Caulson after he was killed in the first Avengers movie. This is achieved using some Science fiction and Science fantasy elements. The main Fantasy element being the use of Kree (an alien race) blood. Kree blood is also used later in the series to stop Skye (later Daisy) from dying.
Season 3 sees the emergence of the Inhumans as main characters.
Later in the season, we're introduced to a new character named Dr. Radcliffe who is explicitly stated as being a Transhumanist
Season 4 began to air on the 20th of September 2016. The 4th season was split into 3 main storylines which Marvel called "pods", each one with its own main story elements. Pod 1 focused on Ghost Rider, a sci-fantasy character, Pod 2 featured the rise of AIDA (a type of Android), and the LMD (Life-Model Decoy) storyline, and Pod 3 focused on Hydra and the simulated reality created by Dr. Holden Radcliffe called "The Framework".
Below are some notes from the season that will later be condensed into a full season summary
We are also introduced to Aida, a cybernetic robot with human appearance created by Dr. Radcliffe (A transhumanist as mentioned in season 3). The robot isn't quite working yet, appearing before Fitz nude and stuck in some kind of loop. Dr. Radcliffe mentions Ultron and AI being banned, saying Aida is mimicry technology and not Artificial Intelligence. Dr. Radcliffe also mentions hopes of Aida passing the Turing test.
Agent Coulson also has a new prosphetic hand that has an x-ray vision like capability.
We also learn that the new director of Shield is said to be an Inhuman.
Episode 8 (the mid-season finale) leaves us with a cliffhanger that AIDA, a life model decoy (LMD) or Android, has become self-aware after reading a book that is known as the "Darkhold". This story arc is picked up again in episode 9 where we learn that AIDA has created an android version of agent May, killed a SHIELD agent, and begun a quest to regain the Darkhold book.
The Darkhold is also said during the episode to be able to show man "how to live forever" and Dr Radcliffe (who we already know to be a transhumanist) says; "man could once and for all break the bonds of his mortal restraints".
It is revealed that Dr. Radcliffe tried to use Aida to retrieve the darkhold. He also makes an LMD of agent May which sends in to shield as he keeps the real agent May hostage. The LMD of agent May seems to think she is in fact herself, this may mean that Dr Radcliffe has found a way to either transfer a person's consciousness into an LMD. Episode 10 confirms that LMD May had her memories implanted from real May, this is by what is shown as "memory upload" rather than consciousness transfer. Real agent May is also placed into a simulation. It is also revealed that Dr. Radcliffe has created an LMD of himself.
When the framework is up and running, the woman whom AIDA was designed to look like (Agnes) is uploaded into it in order to save her consciousness when her biological body dies. It is not made entirely clear whether or not this is a transfer of consciousness, or merely a copy that lives on inside the framework. Agnes is later killed inside the framework by AIDA, seemingly bringing an end to her life both physically and digitally.
Dr. Radcliffe is also killed by AIDA and uploaded into the framework.