Difference between revisions of "Cryonics"

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= Patients =
 
= Patients =
  
Below is a list of all people who have been cryopreserved. It is still a work in progress.
+
See [[Cryonics patients]]
 
 
Sources:
 
* ''Croyonics'', July 1992. [http://www.alcor.org/cryonics/cryonics9207.txt Link].
 
 
 
== Patient Types ==
 
 
 
=== Whole Body ===
 
 
 
The entire body is perfused (with a focus on the brain) and then stored.
 
 
 
=== Neuro ===
 
 
 
The arteries and veins of the neck are clamped and the tissue is removed using scalpels. An osteotome driven by a mallet is used to sever the spine.
 
 
 
=== Brain ===
 
 
 
== 1960s ==
 
 
 
=== 1966 ===
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = FirstWomanSuspended.jpg
 
| Identification = CC-1
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{L|CryoCare Equipment Corporation}}
 
| Lived = ? - 22 Apr 1966
 
| Status = '''<font color="red">THAWED</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a female in her sixties from the Los Angeles area. The patient was removed from preservation after a few months.
 
| Ischemia = The patient had been stored at above-freezing temperature in a mortuary refrigerator after being embalmed for two months before being straight-frozen to liquid nitrogen temperature.<ref=suspensionfailures>
 
}}
 
 
 
=== 1967 ===
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = JamesBedford.jpg
 
| Name = James Hiram Bedford, Dr.
 
| Identification = CSC-1 then A-1142
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = [[#Cryonics Society of California|CSC]] then  {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = 20 April 1893 - 12 Jan 1967
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = '''TODO'''
 
| COD = Kidney cancer (Metastasized to lungs).
 
| Ischemia = '''TODO'''
 
| Procedure = The patient was not perfused and had pure [[#DMSO|DMSO]] injected to his neck. The [[#DMSO|DMSO]] failed to circulate due to improperly-performed chest compressions. For details consult the [[#James Bedford|examination]].
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = MariePhelps-Sweet.jpg
 
| Name = Marie Phelps-Sweet
 
| Identification = CSC-2
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = [[#Cryonics Society of California|CSC]]
 
| Lived = ? - 27 Aug 1967
 
| Status = '''<font color="red">THAWED</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a liberal/humanist activist.<ref>http://www.alcor.org/cryonics/cryonics8709.txt</ref>
 
| Procedure = The patient was stored in dry ice at a mortuary. The patient suffered significant warming during the process of opening the Nisco capsule; removing Louis Nisco; fitting Nisco, the patient and other two patients inside, and resealing the capsule.<ref>Joseph Klockgether, Interview (part 1), Venturist Monthly News, Feb. 1996, 6.</ref>
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = LouisNisco.jpg
 
| Name = Louis Tom Nisco
 
| Identification = CC-2 then CSC-3
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = [[#Cryo-Care|Cryo-Care]] then [[#Cryonics Society of California|CSC]]
 
| Lived = ? - September 1967
 
| Status = '''<font color="red">THAWED</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient lived in Detroit, Michigan. He was a chef for a variety of golf clubs and wrote articles on criminology under the name Louis Nicholas. His daughter decided to cryopreserve him, stating "My father died in my mother's arms and I believe if he'd been put in the ground, my mother wouldn't be alive today. . . she loved
 
him that much."
 
He was one of the [[#Cryonics Society of California|CSC]] patients at the time of the [[#Chatsworth Scandal|Chatsworth Scandal]].
 
| COD = Heart attack.
 
| Ischemia = Patient experienced "some damaging delay"<ref>Michael R. Perry, PhD. ''Suspension Failures: Lessons from the Early Years''. http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/suspensionfailures.html</ref>. The patient suffered significant warming during after after Nelson removed opened the capsule, removed the patient and fit him and other three in side, a process which lasted most of a night.<ref=suspensionfailures>Michael R. Perry, PhD. ''Suspension Failures: Lessons from the Early Years''. http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/suspensionfailures.html</ref>
 
| Procedure = The patient was stored in dry ice.
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Eva Schulman
 
| Identification = CC-3
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{L|CryoCare Equipment Corporation}}
 
| Lived = ? - early 1967
 
| Status = '''<font color="red">THAWED</font>'''
 
| Procedure = The patient was stored in dry ice and hauled around in a truck for around a year before being stored by {{L|CryoCare Equipment Corporation}}. Her son soon had her buried.
 
}}
 
 
 
=== 1968 ===
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = HelenKline.jpg
 
| Name = Helen Kline
 
| Identification = CSC-4
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = [[#Cryonics Society of California|CSC]]
 
| Lived = ? - 14 May 1968
 
| Status = '''<font color="red">THAWED</font>'''
 
| Procedure = The patient was stored in dry ice at a mortuary. The patient suffered significant warming during the process of opening the Nisco capsule; removing Louis Nisco; fitting Nisco, the patient and other two patients inside, and resealing the capsule.<ref>Joseph Klockgether, Interview (part 1), Venturist Monthly News, Feb. 1996, 6.</ref>
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Donald Kester, Sr.
 
| Identification = CC-4
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{L|CryoCare Equipment Corporation}}
 
| Lived = ? - July 1968
 
| Status = '''<font color="red">THAWED</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient committed suicide and was cryopreserved for a year before being thawed and buried by his son, who had the primary financial responsibility, and by late 1969 had become convinced he'd been 'suckered' out of his money. <ref>Cryonics Reports Sep. 1968, 166; CFDA Newsbulletin Nov.-Dec. 1969, 2.</ref>.
 
| COD = Suicide (Gunshot).
 
| Ischemia = His relatives decided to cryopreserve him 'sometime afterwards'.
 
| Procedure = The patient was stored in dry ice.
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = StevenJayMandell.jpg
 
| Name = Steven Jay Mandell
 
| Identification = CSNY-1
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = [[#Cryonics Society of New York|CSNY]] then  [[#Cryonics Society of California|CSC]]
 
| Lived = ? - 28 July 1968
 
| Status = '''<font color="red">THAWED</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a 24-year-old student of Aeronautical Engineering at New York University.
 
 
 
* [http://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1982&dat=19680808&id=ZIpGAAAAIBAJ&sjid=SCoNAAAAIBAJ&pg=648,1252297 Newspaper Clipping] So apparently Mandell left behind a tape recording of the stuff he liked. I supposed nobody recovered it from the Mandell/Nisco/Kline goo? --[[User:Eudoxia|Eudoxia]] 20:14, 5 July 2012 (CDT)
 
 
 
| COD = Crohn's disease (Adrenal failure from post-operatory complications).
 
| Procedure = The patient was stored in dry ice.
 
 
 
A detailed report on his cryopreservation is available [http://cryoeuro.eu:8080/download/attachments/425990/CryonicsReports3%289%291968.pdf here].
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = C. Russell Stanley
 
| Identification = CSC-5
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = [[#Cryonics Society of New York|CSNY]] then  [[#Cryonics Society of California|CSC]]
 
| Lived = ? - 6 Sep 1968
 
| Status = '''<font color="red">THAWED</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a cryonics historian.
 
| COD = Heart attack.
 
| Ischemia = 24 hours.
 
| Procedure = The patient was stored in dry ice at a mortuary. The patient suffered significant warming during the process of opening the Nisco capsule; removing Louis Nisco; fitting Nisco, the patient and other two patients inside, and resealing the capsule.<ref>Joseph Klockgether, Interview (part 1), Venturist Monthly News, Feb. 1996, 6.</ref>
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = AndrewMihok.jpg
 
| Name = Andrew F. Mihok
 
| Identification = CSNY-2
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = [[#Cryonics Society of New York|CSNY]]
 
| Lived = 1920 - 20 November 1968
 
| Status = '''<font color="red">THAWED</font>'''
 
| COD = Heart attack.
 
| Procedure = The patient was placed in dry ice. An account<ref>''SCI.CRYONICS lies, inneuendo and cryonet message 1627''. [[Mike Darwin]]. [http://www.cryonet.org/cgi-bin/dsp.cgi?msg=3247 Link].</ref> states that he was placed in dry ice for a few hours before his wife terminated the arrangements due to lack of funds. A second account<ref>Michael R. Perry, PhD. ''Suspension Failures: Lessons from the Early Years''. http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/suspensionfailures.html</ref> states that he was kept in dry ice for two weeks before relatives refused to pay and had him thawed.
 
}}
 
 
 
=== 1969 ===
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = AnnDeBlasio.jpg
 
| Name = Ann DeBlasio
 
| Identification = CSNY-3
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = [[#Cryonics Society of California|CSC]]
 
| Lived = 1926 - January 1969
 
| Status = '''<font color="red">THAWED</font>'''
 
| COD = Breast cancer.
 
| Procedure = The patient was thawed and recooled like six times; Jesus Christ.
 
 
 
Specifically, the patient was first thawed in August 1971.
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = PaulMHurst.jpg
 
| Name = Paul M. Hurst
 
| Identification = CSNY-4
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = [[#Cryonics Society of New York|CSNY]]
 
| Lived = 1907 - 15 Mar 1969
 
| Status = '''<font color="red">THAWED</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a 62-year-old man. His son, Paul Hurst Jr., a psychology professor, arranged the cryopreservation; but by 1974 he had moved to Australia, could not longer maintain his father, and so had him conventionally interred. <ref>''SCI.CRYONICS lies, inneuendo and cryonet message 1627''. [[Mike Darwin]]. [http://www.cryonet.org/cgi-bin/dsp.cgi?msg=3247 Link].</ref>
 
}}
 
 
 
== 1970s ==
 
 
 
=== 1970 ===
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = MildredHarris.jpg
 
| Name = Mildred E. Harris
 
| Identification = None
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = [[#Cryonics Society of California|CSC]]
 
| Lived = ? - September 1970
 
| Status = '''<font color="red">THAWED</font>'''
 
| Procedure = The patient thawed and decomposed during the [[#Chatsworth Scandal|Chatsworth Scandal]].
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Gaylord Harris
 
| Identification = None
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = [[#Cryonics Society of California|CSC]]
 
| Status = '''<font color="red">THAWED</font>'''
 
| Procedure = The patient was exhumed from his grave in Iowa and transported to the CSC facility, where he was left to rot on the floor. <ref>''Freezing People Is Easy''. [[Mike Darwin]]. [http://chronopause.com/index.php/2012/05/07/freezing-people-is-easy/ Link].</ref>
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = HermanGreenberg.jpg
 
| Name = Herman Greenberg
 
| Identification = CSNY
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = [[#Cryonics Society of New York|CSNY]]
 
| Lived = 1928 - May 1970
 
| Status = '''<font color="red">THAWED</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a 42-year-old male. The patient's body was exhumed with a backhoe by her daughter and preserved. Beverly Greenberg later died of hypothermia sleeping in the [[#CSNY|CSNY]] facility. Lack of funding and interest from relatives lead to his thawing and burial, and her cremation.
 
}}
 
 
 
=== 1972 ===
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = GenevieveDeLaPoterie.jpg
 
| Name = Genevieve de la Poterie
 
| Identification = None
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = [[#Cryonics Society of California|CSC]]
 
| Lived = 1964 - 25 Jan 1972
 
| Status = '''<font color="red">THAWED</font>'''
 
| COD = Kidney cancer (metastasized to lungs).
 
| Ischemia = Minutes<ref>http://cryoeuro.eu:8080/download/attachments/425990/New_Ice_Age_LATimes_WestMagazine_11Jun1972.pdf</ref>.
 
| Procedure = The patient thawed and decomposed during the [[#Chatsworth Scandal|Chatsworth Scandal]].
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = D.L.
 
| Identification = CSC-
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = [[#Cryonics Society of California|CSC]]
 
| Lived = 1921 - 13 Nov 1972
 
| Status = '''<font color="red">THAWED</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a 51-year-old female.
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = ClaraDastal.jpg
 
| Name = Clara Dostal
 
| Identification = CSNY-6
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization =
 
| Lived =  - 10 December 1972
 
| Status = '''<font color="red">THAWED</font>'''
 
| Ischemia = 45 minutes before cooling begun.
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://cryoeuro.eu:8080/download/attachments/425990/ManriseTechRev3%281%291973+.pdf Case Report]
 
 
 
The patient was stored in dry ice for almost a year. Arrangements to have Nelson store the patient in liquid nitrogen did not succeed. The patient was then moved to the Hurst/Greenberg capsule, where she was stored in liquid nitrogen for a few months. The costs and emotional burden eventually lead her two children to terminate the arrangements, and she was interred.<ref>Los Angeles Superior Court case C-161229, Deposition of Claire Halpert esp. 58, 71-72 (Aug. 4, 1978); Deposition of Richard Dostal esp. 64 (Mar. 22, 1979).</ref>.
 
}}
 
 
 
=== 1974 ===
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Mary J. DeMar
 
| Identification = TT- then CI-25
 
| Type = {{L|Whole Body}}
 
| Organization = {{TT}} then the {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = - 4 Feb 1974
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was the a 75-year-old female and the mother of Eric S. DeMar, an Illinois sitting circuit court judge who joined {{CI}} before being suspended in 1997. His will left instructions for the transfer of both his parents to CI.
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
 
 
<ref>''The Outlook'', March 1974.</ref>
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Ray Mills, aka Patient 1
 
| Identification = TT-1 then A-1056
 
| Type = Whole Body, converted to Neuro November 2, 1983
 
| Organization = {{TT}} then {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = 22 Apr 1908 - 09 Feb 1974
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a Caucasian, 65-year-old male, married to [[#Katherine V. Mills|Katherine Mills]], who was cryopreserved in {{L|1978}}.
 
| COD = Lethal cerebrovascular accident.
 
| Ischemia = The patient deanimated far from a cryonics facility. Perfusion was begun 24 hours after legal death was declared. Equipment failure and severe edema made perfusion difficult.
 
| Procedure = Perfusion was performed through the left common carotid artery. Perfusion was open circuit and drainage was done through both the left and right internal jugular veins. The initial perfusate was blood washout with 32 liters of bicarbonate-buffered Ringer's solution. Cryoprotective perfusion was done with 32 liters of glycerophosphate-based perfusate with 15% DMSO (v/v). A Porta-Boy embalming pump was used to deliver the perfusate. The patient had been stored in Liquid Nitrogen by {{TT}} for 5 years. Cryonicist Dick Clair donated 20,000 dollars for the patient to be transferred to Alcor as a Neuropatient. Conversion to neuropreservation was done by means of a high-speed electric chainsaw.
 
 
 
A [http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=bGkaAAAAIBAJ&sjid=-SkEAAAAIBAJ&pg=6938,2631991&dq=trans-time&hl=en Google Newspaper article] from 1982 identifies him as Ray Mills from Cumberland, Maryland. There is a [http://www.death-record.com/l/113791381/Ray-Mills record] of a Ray Mills who died eight days prior to the patient's cryopreservation.
 
 
 
The cryopreservation was done by {{TT}} and the patient was transferred to {{Alcor}} November 13, 1982.
 
 
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/postmortemexamination.html Postmortem Examination of Three Cryonic Suspension Patients]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Michael Baburka
 
| Identification = CSNY-
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = [[#Cryonics Society of New York|CSNY]]
 
| Lived = ? - 10 Apr 1974
 
| Status = '''<font color="red">THAWED</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was stored privately by his son for a few months before being buried (Inside his capsule).
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia = '''TODO'''
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = S.P.
 
| Identification = CSC-
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = [[#Cryonics Society of California|CSC]]
 
| Lived = ? - 11 Oct 1974
 
| Status = '''<font color="red">THAWED</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was the 8-year-old son of an Orange County ADA.
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia = Unknown
 
| Procedure = Unknown.
 
}}
 
 
 
=== 1975 ===
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Pedro Ledesma
 
| Identification = None
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = [[#Cryonics Society of California|CSC]]
 
| Lived = ? - 28 Sep 1975
 
| Status = '''<font color="red">THAWED</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a 62-year-old male.
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia = The patient was not frozen until 26 Jul 1976.
 
| Procedure = The patient was stored in a mortuary refrigerator for ten months prior to being stored in liquid nitrogen. The patient thawed and decomposed during the [[#Chatsworth Scandal|Chatsworth Scandal]].
 
}}
 
 
 
=== 1976 ===
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = FredChamberlainJr.jpg
 
| Name = Fred Chamberlain II
 
| Identification = A-1001
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{L|Alcor}}
 
| Lived = March 28 1897 - 16 Jul 1976
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The father of [[#Fred Rockwell Chamberlain III|Fred Chamberlain the third]], he was {{Alcor}}'s first cryopreservation and the worlds first [[#Neuro|neuropatient]].
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia = '''TODO'''
 
| Procedure = '''TODO'''
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Patricia Luna Wilson
 
| Identification = TT-3
 
| Type = Brain
 
| Organization = {{TT}}
 
| Lived = 1961 - 2 Oct 1976
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was the 15-year-old daughter of science-fiction author Robert Anton Wilson.
 
| COD = Beaten to death. Apparent robbery.
 
| Ischemia = ~36 hours. A day before her body was found by police, then an autopsy. The coroner agreed not to inspect the brain, and released it to {{TT}}.
 
| Procedure = The patient's brain was cooled to dry ice then Liquid Nitrogen temperature.
 
}}
 
 
 
=== 1977 ===
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = Rhea.jpg
 
| Name = Rhea Chaloff Ettinger
 
| Identification = CI-1
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = 15 Jan 1899 - 23 Sep 1977
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a 78 year old female (Pictured at the age of 18) and the mother of [[Robert Ettinger]].
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia = Unknown.
 
| Procedure = [[Mike Darwin]], who performed the cryopreseration, described it as follows:
 
 
 
"The rift with Ettinger was over the horrible conditions that existed at CSM which I discovered when I froze his mother: filth, bugs, glycerol in used milk bottles from the Palmolive Soap Company that was so impure it had a yellow-green hue, a perfusion machine built by Walter Runkel in which the rubber tubing had rotted away inside; thus it kept dumping batches of perfusate into the heat exchanger bath! "<ref>http://chronopause.com/index.php/2011/02/12/thus-spake-curtis-henderson-part-6-2/</ref>
 
 
 
Reference: <ref>http://www.cryonet.org/cgi-bin/dsp.cgi?msg=1148</ref>
 
}}
 
 
 
=== 1978 ===
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = SamuelBerkowitz.jpg
 
| Name = Samuel Berkowitz
 
| Identification = TT-5
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{TT}}
 
| Lived = ? - 14 July 1978
 
| Status = '''<font color="red">THAWED</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was thawed by his family and buried in a concrete container filled with formaldehyde. The family claimed to be committed to immortalism and planned the same form of interrment for themselves.
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://cryoeuro.eu:8080/pages/viewpageattachments.action?pageId=425990&sortBy=date&highlight=Berkowitz_Cryopreservation_Report_Mar_Apr_1979.pdf& Case Report]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Katherine V. Mills, aka Patient 2
 
| Identification = TT-4 then A-1057
 
| Type = Whole Body, converted to Neuro November 2, 1983
 
| Organization = {{TT}} then {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = 6 Jul 1913 - 02 Nov 1978
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a Caucasian 68-year-old female, married to [[#Ray Mills|Ray Mills]].
 
 
 
A [http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=bGkaAAAAIBAJ&sjid=-SkEAAAAIBAJ&pg=6938,2631991&dq=trans-time&hl=en Google Newspaper article] from 1982 identifies her as Katherine Mills from Cumberland, Maryland. There is a [http://www.death-record.com/l/113532789/Katherine-Mills record] of the death of a Katherine Mills who died a day prior to the cryopreservation of the patient.
 
 
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia = The patient died far from a cryonics facility.
 
| Procedure = The cryopreservation was done by {{TT}} and the patient was transferred to {{Alcor}} November 13, 1982.
 
}}
 
 
 
=== 1979 ===
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Lucille Rothacker
 
| Identification = TT-6
 
| Type = {{L|Neuro}}
 
| Organization = {{TT}} then {{L|CryoSpan}}
 
| Lived = 1903 - 22 Jan 1979
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a 76-year-old female.
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia = Unknown.
 
| Procedure = The patient was transferred to {{L|CryoSpan}}.
 
References:
 
* ''The Cryonicist!'', March 1979.
 
* ''Cryonics'', November 1981.
 
}}
 
 
 
== 1980s ==
 
 
 
=== 1980 ===
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Wilfred J. DeMar
 
| Identification = TT- then CI-26
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{TT}} then the {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = - 15 Jan 1980
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a 79-year-old male and the father of Eric S. DeMar, an Illinois sitting circuit court judge who joined {{CI}} before being suspended in 1997. His will left instructions for the transfer of both his parents to CI.
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure = References:
 
* ''Cryonics'', November 1985.
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Janice Foote, aka [[#Patient 3|Patient 3]]
 
| Identification = TT-8
 
| Type = [[#Whole Body|Whole Body]] then [[#Neuro|Neuro]]
 
| Organization = {{TT}}
 
| Lived = 1944 - 17 Jan 1979
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a 36-year-old female. Her husband, Marvin Foote, later married Diane Foote.
 
| COD = An eight year long fight with cancer.
 
| Ischemia = Some hours passed after her pronouncement in a hospital before her husband secured 200 pounds of dry ice.
 
| Procedure = References:
 
* ''The Sacramento Bee'', 1980
 
* ''Cryonics Reports'', September 1984.
 
* ''Cryonics Reports'', November 1985
 
* ''Anchorage Daily News'', February 10, 1980.
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Unknown
 
| Identification = TT-9 then A-1055
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{TT}} then {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = - 02 Feb 1981
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
 
 
=== 1981 ===
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Hugh L. Hixon, Sr.
 
| Identification = TT-10 then A-1055
 
| Type = {{L|Neuro}}
 
| Organization = {{TT}} then {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = - 2 Feb 1981
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a 71-year-old male and the father of [[Hugh Hixon]].
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
 
 
=== 1982 ===
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Unknown
 
| Identification = None
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = Private
 
| Lived = ? - 1982
 
| Status = '''<font color="black">Unknown</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure = The patient was privately cryopreserved and stored by his son. Nothing more is known from this cryopreservation.
 
}}
 
 
 
=== 1984 ===
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = MoniqueMartinot.jpg
 
| Name = Monique Martinot
 
| Identification = None
 
| Type = [[#Whole Body|Whole Body]]
 
| Organization = Private
 
| Lived = - 25 Feb 1984
 
| Status = '''<font color="red">THAWED</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was the wife of Raymond Martinot, whose son cryopreserved him as well in 2002.
 
| COD = Hemorrhage of the iliac vessels (Ovarian cancer).
 
| Ischemia = Unknown.
 
| Procedure = The patient was injected with anticoagulants by her husband and stored in a freezer at -65 degrees Celsius in the cellar of a chateau. The patient's husband payed the bills by allowing people to see the freezer. The patient thawed in 2006 when a freezer malfunction rose the temperature to -20C, and her son decided to stop the effort.
 
}}
 
 
 
=== 1985 ===
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = TeresaCannon.jpg
 
| Name = Teresa M. Cannon
 
| Identification = A-1068
 
| Type = {{L|Neuro}}
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = - 12 Feb 1985
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a 68-year-old female.
 
| COD = Lymphoma.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casereport8504.html Case Report: Neuropreservation of Alcor Patient A-1068]
 
}}
 
 
 
=== 1987 ===
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = ElaineEttinger.jpg
 
| Name = Elaine Ettinger
 
| Identification = CI-2
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = 22 Dec 1921 - 10 Nov 1987
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = First wife of [[Robert Ettinger]].
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Randall B. Robertson
 
| Identification = A-1133
 
| Type = {{L|Neuro}}
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = - 08 Jun 1987
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a 29-year-old male.
 
 
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casereport8708.html Non-technical Case Report and Comments at Memorial Service]
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/pdfs/AlcorCaseA1133.pdf Case Report]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = DoraKent.jpg
 
| Name = Dora Kent
 
| Identification = A-1082
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = - 11 Dec 1987
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
 
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/dorakent.html Dora Kent Q&A]
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/DoraKentCase.html Our Finest Hours: Notes On the Dora Kent Crisis]
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
 
 
=== 1988 ===
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Violet Jones
 
| Identification = TT-11
 
| Type = [[#Whole Body|Whole Body]]
 
| Organization = {{TT}}
 
| Lived = ? - 12 Mar 1988
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a 87-year-old female.
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Mr. M
 
| Identification = CSD-
 
| Type = [[#Whole Body|Whole Body]]
 
| Organization = [[#Cryonics Society of Canada|Cryonics Society of Canada]]
 
| Lived = ? - Mar 1988
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a 85-year-old male.
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure = The patient was [[#Permafrost Burial|interred in permafrost]].
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = RobertGeorgeBinkowski.jpg
 
| Name = Robert George Binkowski
 
| Identification = A-1108
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = 28 Oct 1916 - 08 May 1988
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a 72-year-old male.
 
 
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casereport8806.html Case Report]
 
| COD = Cardiac arrest caused by a history of arteriosclerosis and congestive heart failure.
 
| Ischemia = The patient's son packed his head in ice within minutes of arrest. Less than fourteen hours later he was on a plane to LAX.
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/pdfs/casereportA1108RobertBinkowski.pdf Technical Case Report]
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Alice M. Schwarz
 
| Identification = A-1165
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = 9 Sep 1910 - 07 Oct 1988
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
 
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casereport8811.html Case Report]
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = DickClair.jpg
 
| Name = Richard Clair Jones
 
| Identification = A-1036
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = 12 Nov 1931 - 12 Dec 1988
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
He donated 20,000 dollars to {{TT}} to maintain a husband and wife in storage.
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casereport8901.html Case Report]
 
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dick_Clair Wikipedia Entry]
 
| COD = Multiple AIDS-related infections.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
 
 
=== 1989 ===
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = EugeneTDonovan.jpg
 
| Name = Eugene T. Donovan
 
| Identification = A-1169
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = - 21 Mar 1989
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
 
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casereport9002.html Case Report]
 
| COD = Esophageal cancer.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = O.C.
 
| Identification = TT-12
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{TT}}
 
| Lived = - 18 Aug 1989
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = Patient was a 78-year-old male.
 
| COD = Sudden cardiac arrest.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Cristina Comos
 
| Identification = A-1196
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = - 19 Aug 1989
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = Patient was a 21-year-old female.
 
| COD = Sudden cardiac arrest.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casereport8911.html Case Report]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = BredoMorstoel.jpg
 
| Name = Bredo Morstoel
 
| Identification = TT-13
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{TT}}
 
| Lived = - 6 Nov 1989
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = Patient was a 89-year-old male.
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
 
 
== 1990s ==
 
 
 
=== 1990 ===
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Cynthia Pilgeram
 
| Identification = A-1242
 
| Type = [[#Neuro|Neuro]]
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = - 9 May 1990
 
| Status = '''<font color="red">THAWED</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a 60-year-old female.
 
| COD = Complications from long-standing cancer and lung damage from chemotherapy.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure = The patient was released to a relative via a court order ([http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casereport9010.html#paperworkcounts Link]).
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casereport9010.html Case Report]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = ArleneFrancesFried.jpg
 
| Name = Arlene Frances Fried
 
| Identification = A-1049
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = - 9 Jun 1990
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a 68-year-old female.
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/fried.html Case Report]
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casereport9012.htm ''Her Blue Eyes Will Sparkle''] (Daughter's personal account)
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image =  RoccoSchiavello.jpg
 
| Name = Rocco Schiavello
 
| Identification = A-1239
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = - 22 Jun 1990
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a 30-year-old male.
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casereport9009.html Case Report]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = R.S.D.
 
| Identification = None
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = Private then {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = - 29 Sep 1990
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a 76-year-old female.
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = F.H.
 
| Identification =
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = Private then {{CI}}
 
| Lived = - 22 Dec 1990
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was an 97-year-old female.
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = M.T.
 
| Identification = A-1268
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = - 31 Dec 1990
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was an 88-year-old female.
 
| COD = Complications from long-standing cancer and lung damage from chemotherapy.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casereport9103.html Case Report]
 
}}
 
 
 
=== 1991 ===
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-3
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 6 Mar 1991
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a ~65-year-old female.
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Fred Sherrill
 
| Identification = CI-4
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 13 Mar 1991
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a 61-year-old male.
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Unknown
 
| Identification = None
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = [[#Cryonics Society of Canada|Cryonics Society of Canada]]
 
| Lived = - Jun 1991
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a male.
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure = The patient was [[#Permafrost Burial|interred in permafrost]].
 
<ref>''The Immortalist'', November 1991</ref>
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = Jerry Leaf.jpg
 
| Name = Jerry D. Leaf
 
| Identification = A-1058
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = 4 Apr 1941 - 10 Jul 1991
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Sudden cardiac arrest with no prior history of heart disease. An ad hoc medical examination conducted during the cryopreservation showed a 3cm long clot in what appeared to be a coronary vein. The posterior and left inferior walls were dark and edematous, thus, the COD was a massive myocardial infarction.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/JerryLeafEntersCryonicSuspension.htm Case Report]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = D.W.
 
| Identification = A-1324
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = - 2 Aug 1991
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a 62-year-old female.
 
| COD = Inoperable gastric carcinoma (metastasized to the liver, pancreas and other organs).
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casereport9111.html Case Report]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = WalterERunkel.jpg
 
| Name = Walter E. Runkel
 
| Identification = CI-5
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = - 7 Oct 1991
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a 75-year-old male.
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = M.C.
 
| Identification = TT-14
 
| Type = {{L|Whole Body}}
 
| Organization = {{TT}}
 
| Lived = - 29 Nov 1991
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was an 80-year-old female.
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Philip Salin
 
| Identification = A-1312
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = - 12 Dec 1991
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was an 41-year-old male.
 
| COD = Gastric cancer (metastasized to liver).
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casereport9202.html Case Report]
 
}}
 
 
 
=== 1992 ===
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = SusanWhite.jpg
 
| Name = Susan White
 
| Identification = TT-14
 
| Type = [[#Brain|Brain]]
 
| Organization = {{TT}}
 
| Lived = ? - 7 Jan 1992
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a 73-year-old female and mother to [[#Jerome Butler White|Jerry White]].
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* Account of the cryopreservation by the patient's son, {{L|Jerome Butler White}}:
 
** [http://web.archive.org/web/20050309080622/http://keithlynch.net/cryonet/12/53.html Part 1]
 
** [http://web.archive.org/web/20050309080606/http://keithlynch.net/cryonet/12/54.html Part 2]
 
** [http://web.archive.org/web/20050309080529/http://keithlynch.net/cryonet/12/55.html Part 3]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Carol C.
 
| Identification = TT-16 then CI-
 
| Type = [[#Brain|Brain]]
 
| Organization = {{TT}} then {{CI}}
 
| Lived = ? - 10 Mar 1992
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a 42-year-old female.
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = J.D.
 
| Identification = A-1260
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 19 Mar 1992
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was as 39-year-old male.
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casereport9205.html Case Report]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Michael L. Friedman
 
| Identification = A-1171
 
| Type = Neuro and Whole Body (Stored separately)
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 01 Jun 1992
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Four gunshot wounds to the back of the head.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casereport9207.html Case Report]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-1184
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 19 Jun 1992
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casereport9208.html Case Report]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image =  JimGlennie.jpg
 
| Name =  Jim Glennie
 
| Identification = A-1367
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 24 Jun 1992
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casereport9209.html 'A Well-Loved Man'], personal account by his wife.
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/glennie.html Case Report]
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = James Hourihan
 
| Identification = A-1410
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 27 Jul 1992
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casereport9210.html Case Report]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-6
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = - 24 Aug 1992
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a 50-year-old female.
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = MaryAdelynneMarsh.jpg
 
| Name = Mary Adelynne Marsh
 
| Identification = TT-15 then CI-8
 
| Type = {{L|Whole Body}}
 
| Organization = {{TT}} then {{CI}}
 
| Lived = ? - 25 Aug 1992
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a 70-year-old female school teacher and the wife of {{L|Richard Marsh}}.
 
| COD = Seizure followed by a stroke.
 
| Ischemia = The patient was still on an IV and receiving oxygen after pronouncement of death, she was heparinized and on CPR within five minutes, and packed with ice within ninety. It took less than an hour to transport her to {{TT}}.
 
| Procedure = The patient was stored at the {{CryonicsInst}}.
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-7
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = - 12 Aug 1992
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = JohnErfurt.jpg
 
| Name = John C Erfurt
 
| Identification = CI-9
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = - 9 Sep 1992
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = John Erfurt was a Director of the {{CryonicsInst}} and 58 years of age when he died. The building is named after him and {{L|Walter E. Runkel}}. He was married to {{L|Andrea Foote}}, who was cryopreserved in {{L|1995}}.
 
 
 
The lack of a period after the C in the patient's name is not a typo, he had a middle initial but no middle name.
 
| COD = Sudden cardiac death.
 
| Ischemia = The body was not discovered until several hours after clinical death.<ref>http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GScid=2269958&GRid=28545107&</ref>
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-10
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = - 24 Nov 1992
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Charles Amlin
 
| Identification = CI-11
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{TT}} then {{CI}}
 
| Lived = - 30 Nov 1992
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a 94-year-old male.
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure = The patient was stored at {{CI}} on 2 Dec 1992.
 
}}
 
 
 
=== 1993 ===
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-1401
 
| Type = Brain
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 01 Feb 1993
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a 48-year-old male.
 
| COD = Suicide.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casereport9304.html Case Report]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-1399
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 11 Apr 1993
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a 37-year-old male.
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casereport9306.htm Case Report]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-1487
 
| Type = Brain
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 21 Sept 1993
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The atient was a male.
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure = Patient was transferred to alcor in December 16, 2008; and accepted as an Alcor Patient in November 19, 2010. (This probably needs clarification if people are not to think that they let a brain to rot in a corner. --[[User:Eudoxia|Eudoxia]] 21:39, 2 July 2012 (CDT))
 
}}
 
 
 
=== 1994 ===
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = JerryWhite.jpg
 
| Name = Jerome Butler White
 
| Identification = ACS-9577 then CI-61
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = 31 Oct 1938 - 5 Feb 1994
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = AIDS.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure = The patient was transferred to the {{CryonicsInst}} on 6 April 2004.
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Lillian Steinberg
 
| Identification = A-1206
 
| Type =  Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 30 Apr 1994
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a 91-year-old female.
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* Case Report in Cryonics, 3rd quarter, 1994.
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = MaryAdelynneMarsh.jpg
 
| Name = Richard Marsh
 
| Identification = CI-12
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = 4 Feb 1913 - 6 May 1994 (Stored 14 May)
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = Richard Putnam Marsh, PhD.
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-13
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = - 14 Sep 1994
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Helmer Fredriksson
 
| Identification = CI-14
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = - 16 Dec 1994
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a Marine and was married to [[Marta Sandberg]] for 23 years.
 
| COD = Pituitary brain tumor.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
 
 
=== 1995 ===
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = PaulGenteman.jpg
 
| Name = Paul Genteman
 
| Identification = A-1030
 
| Type = {{L|Neuro}}
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = - 03 Jan 1995
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* Case Report in Cryonics, 2nd quarter, 1995
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = MargaretBradshaw.jpg
 
| Name = Margaret Bradshaw
 
| Identification = CI-52
 
| Type = {{L|Neuro}}
 
| Organization = {{ACS}} (Perfused by {{L|BioPreservation}}, stored at {{L|CryoSpan}} then the {{CryonicsInst}})
 
| Lived = 1954 - 9 Jan 1995
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a long-time cryonics activist and had been an [[#American Cryonics Society|ACS]] Governor since 1990. She took up flying at the age of 49, and also wrote poetry inspired by that of [[#Jerome Butler White|Jerry White]]. She cared for White during his standby and was his medical power of attorney. She had been working for Sterling Software, a contractor to NASA Ames, since 1988; as a Project Manager for the Graphics Development Project. Her boss described her job as "riding herd on an extremely talented group of individuals." She wrote the 'Stereographics' chapter of the book [http://www.amazon.com/Modelling-Advanced-Communication-Computer-Graphics/dp/3642782930 ''From Object Modelling to Advanced Visual Communication''], the proceedings of the Eurographics '91 conference in Vienna. She also coauthored ''On the Theory and Application of Stereographics in Scientific Visualization'', presented at the same conference.
 
 
 
The patient had been undergoing treatment for chronic depression for several years. [[Mike Darwin]] believed that the emotional stress of the {{L|Standby}} and cryopreservation of her friend [[#Jerome Butler White|Jerry White]] led to her suicide. She had switched medications and had been unable to sleep for at least three days before her suicide.
 
 
 
* [http://video.google.com/googleplayer.swf?docId=-7217600641593229672&hl=en Sally Jessy Raphael interviews Richard Marsh, Margaret Bradshaw, Avi Ben-Abraham (1987)]
 
* [http://www.verhaalprojecten.nl/journey/margaretpage.htm Margaret Bradshaw Suspended] by Jim Young (''The Immortalist'', March 1995).
 
* [http://www.cryonet.org/cgi-bin/dsp.cgi?msg=3675 Memorial Service]
 
* [http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GScid=2269958&GRid=28545154& ''Find A Grave'' Entry].
 
* [http://www.cryonet.org/cgi-bin/dsp.cgi?msg=3700 Email] by [[Mike Darwin]].
 
| COD = Suicide (Gunshot to the chest).
 
| Ischemia = Some hours passed before the patient's head was packed in ice. At 9:30 AM the autopsy was carried out. The Medical Examiner was cooperative, leaving the head out of the procedure and carrying out the autopsy before all others.
 
| Procedure = The response team consisted of Sandra Russell, Naomi Reynolds, Edgar Swank, and Jim Yount. The patient was cooled between January 17 and February 15, at a rate not exceeding 0.6 degrees Celsius per hour. The patient was transferred to the {{CryonicsInst}} in 2004.
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-1559
 
| Type = {{L|Neuro}}
 
| Organization = {{L|BioPreservation}} then {{L|CryoSpan}}
 
| Lived = - About Feb 1995
 
| Status = Unknown
 
| Bio = The patient was a female child.
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
<ref>''The Immortalist'', April 1995.</ref>
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Anatol Epstein
 
| Identification = A-1559
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = - 12 Jun 1995
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* Case Report in Cryonics, 3rd quarter, 1995
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = MonaDick.jpg
 
| Name = Mona K. Dick
 
| Identification = A-1486
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = - 08 Aug 1995
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* Case Report in Cryonics, 3rd quarter, 1995 & Cryonics, 4th quarter, 1995
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = None
 
| Type = Brain
 
| Organization = Private then {{L|CryoSpan}}
 
| Lived = - Late Aug 1995
 
| Status = Unknown
 
| Bio = The patient was a male.
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure = <ref>''The Immortalist'', October 1995.</ref>
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = None
 
| Type = Brain
 
| Organization = {{L|BioPreservation}} then {{L|CryoSpan}}
 
| Lived = - About Sep 1995
 
| Status = Unknown
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure = <ref>''The Immortalist'', November 1995.</ref>
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = AndreaFoote.jpg
 
| Name = Andrea Foote
 
| Identification = CI-15
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = - 6 Oct 1995
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient studied Social Psychology at the University of Michigan. She was a Contract Officer for many years and briefly occupied the position of President of the {{CryonicsInst}} in 1994. She was married to John C Erfurt, another patient at CI. Dr. Foote and her husband, while the University, implemented a wellness program for industrialists such as auto makers, including regular pressure checks, et cetera. In May 5, 1995 she was quoted by The Daily Gazette as saying "It's not that I want to come back, it's that I don't want to die".
 
 
 
* [http://www.cryonics.org/immortalist/march07/why.htm Some information]
 
* [http://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1957&dat=19910505&id=gnQhAAAAIBAJ&sjid=5ogFAAAAIBAJ&pg=5638,1248024 Newspaper article quoting the patient]
 
| Ischemia = The patient died under hospice care watched by her sisters. All the necessary equipment was on hand, creating little delay.
 
| COD = Ovarian Cancer.
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.cryonet.org/cgi-bin/dsp.cgi?msg=4965 Announcement]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-16
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = - 3 Nov 1995
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a 100-year-old female.
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = StanislawPenksa.jpg
 
| Name = Stanislaw Penksa
 
| Identification = A-1475
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = - 26 Nov 1995
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casereport1996-1.html Case Report]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = JamesGallagher.jpg
 
| Name = James Gallagher
 
| Identification = A-1871
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{L|CryoCare}} then {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = - 12 Dec 1995
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure = This was the first cryopreservation done by {{L|CryoCare}}. The patient was transferred to Alcor on Jan 24 2001.
 
 
 
* [http://www.cryocare.org/index.cgi?subdir=&url=ccrpt6.html#GALLAGHER CryoCare Announcement]
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casereportC2150.htm Case Report]
 
}}
 
 
 
=== 1996 ===
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-17
 
| Type = {{L|Whole Body}}
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = - 28 Jan 1996
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a 46-year-old female.
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-1600
 
| Type = {{L|Whole Body}}
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 05 Mar 1996
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
* Case Report in Cryonics, 3rd quarter, 1996
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-18
 
| Type = {{L|Whole Body}}
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = - 8 Mar 1996
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was an 86-year-old female.
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-19
 
| Type = {{L|Whole Body}}
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = - 17 Apr 1996
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a 75-year-old male.
 
| Procedure = The patient was stored on 18 May 1996.
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Henrietta Popper
 
| Identification = A-1872
 
| Type = {{L|Neuro}}
 
| Organization = {{BioPreservation}} and {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 16 May 1996
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was an 80-year-old female.
 
| Procedure = The patient was cryopreserved by {{L|CryoCare}}, then transferred to Alcor on Jan 24 2001.
 
* [http://www.cryocare.org/index.cgi?subdir=&url=ccrpt7.html#POPPER Case Report]
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Walter Cornelius
 
| Identification = CI-20
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = - 2 Aug 1996
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-1670
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 19 Oct 1996
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-21
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = - 7 Dec 1996
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
}}
 
 
 
=== 1997 ===
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Edward W. Kuhrt
 
| Identification = A-1110
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = 28 Dec 1931 - 8 Feb 1997
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/pdfs/casereport9701.pdf Case Report]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = JosephCannon.jpg
 
| Name = Joseph Cannon
 
| Identification = A-1069
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = 22 Jul 1915 - 20 Feb 1997
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure = Case Report in Cryonics, 3rd quarter, 1997
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Eric S. DeMar
 
| Identification = CI-22
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = - 4 Mar 1997
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = None
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = Private
 
| Lived = - 14 Dec 1997
 
| Status = Unknown
 
| Bio = The patient was a 38-year-old female.
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = HorstGruenler.jpg
 
| Name = Horst Gruenler
 
| Identification = CI-23
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = - 29 Dec 1997
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure = The patient was stored on 29 Dec 1997.
 
}}
 
 
 
=== 1998 ===
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-24
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = - 24 Mar 1998
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was an 83-year-old woman.
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-27
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = - 7 May 1998
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a 53-year-old Californian man.
 
| COD = Cancer.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-28
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = - 29 May 1998
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a 54-year-old Pennsylvanian woman.
 
| COD = Cancer.
 
| Ischemia = Hospital personnel were cooperative, applying Heparin and otherwise assisting immediately after arrest.
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Natasha Matic
 
| Identification = CI-29
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = 1910 - 4 Jun 1998
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient, an 88-year-old female, was born in Russia. She lost her parents and two brothers after the Revolution, her first husband during the Soviet invasion of Finland and her children during the Nazi invasion of Russia. She was sent to a Nazi labor camp along with other 3000 women, and was one of the 71 survivors. She remarried after the end of the War and the two traveled to New York seven years later. In 1944, she gave birth to Rudy Matic, who would eventually make her cryopreservation arrangements. Her second husband died in 1974.
 
 
 
In 1998, the patient's son and her made inquires about cryonics to {{CI}}, but had not become members by June, when she had a stroke and a heart attack. The arrangements were completed on the same day as pronouncement.
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia = Suspension was carried out on the same day as pronouncement. The hospital and mortuary proved cooperative and efficient.
 
| Procedure = Unknown.
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-2510
 
| Type = Brain
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = - 27 Jun 1998
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure = The patient was transferred to Alcor December 16, 2008 and became a patient March 1, 2011.
 
}}
 
 
 
=== 1999 ===
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-30
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = - 24 Mar 1999
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-31
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = - 19 Oct 1999
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-1215
 
| Type = Brain
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = - 25 Aig 1999
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure = Case Report in Cryonics, 4th quarter, 1999.
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-1755
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = - 28 Aug 1999
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
 
 
== 2000s ==
 
 
 
=== 2000 ===
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-32
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 26 Jan 2000
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-33
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 15 Feb 2000
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = MaeEttinger.jpg
 
| Name = Mae Ettinger
 
| Identification = CI-34
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 23 Mar 2000
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was the second wife of [[Robert Ettinger]] and an author, feminist, and marriage counselor. She had suffered a debilitating stroke in 1998.
 
| COD = Stroke.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-35
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 16 Nov 2000
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-36
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 25 Nov 2000
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Gregory Grapski
 
| Identification = A-1457
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 13 Jan 2000
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-1573
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 1 Apr 2000
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = FM-2030.jpg
 
| Name = FM-2030
 
| Identification = A-1261
 
| Type = {{L|Neuro}}
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = 15 Oct 1930 - 8 Jul 2000
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Pancreatic cancer.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure = This was the first patient to be vitrified.
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-1216
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 09 Dec 2000
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-1502
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 26 Dec 2000
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
 
 
=== 2001 ===
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-37
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 25 Jan 2001
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-38
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 27 Feb 2001
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-39
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 28 Oct 2001
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-40
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 2 Dec 2001
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-1705
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 22 March 2001
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/pdfs/casereport2001-2.pdf Case Report]
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-1300
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 1 June 2001
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-1756
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 10 June 2001
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-1894
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 22 August 2001
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
 
 
=== 2002 ===
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = RaymondMartinot.jpg
 
| Name = Raymond Martinot
 
| Identification = None
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = Private
 
| Lived = ? - 2002
 
| Status = '''<font color="red">THAWED</font>'''
 
| Bio = See [[#Monique Martinot|Monique Martinot]].
 
| COD = Stroke.
 
| Ischemia = Unknown.
 
| Procedure = The patient was administered anticoagulants by his son and stored in a freezer above dry ice temperature along with her wife.
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = EleanorWilliams .jpg
 
| Name = Eleanor Williams
 
| Identification = A-1876
 
| Type = Whole Body and Neuro (Stored separately)
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 3 March 2002
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/pdfs/casereport1876.pdf Case Report]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-1891
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 8 Mar 2002
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-2509
 
| Type = Brain
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 1 May 2002
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure = The patient was transferred to Alcor on December 16, 2008. and was accepted as an Alcor Patient on September 5, 2010.
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-41
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 29 May 2002
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = TedWilliams.jpg
 
| Name = Ted Williams
 
| Identification = A-1949
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = 30 Aug 1918 - 5 Jul 2002
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Cardiomyopathy.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-1951
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 3 Aug 2002
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-1194
 
| Type = Brain
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 29 Aug 2002
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-42
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 28 Sep 2002
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-1889
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 3 Nov 2002
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-43
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 5 Nov 2002
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure = The patient died in Toronto.
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-1235
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 27 Nov 2002
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/pdfs/casereport2002-4.pdf Case Report]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-44
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 27 Nov 2002
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-1034
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 19 Dec 2002
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casesummary1034.html Case Summary]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = Hugh Hart.jpg
 
| Name = Hugh Hart
 
| Identification = CI-45
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 25 Dec 2002
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
 
 
=== 2003 ===
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-46
 
| Type = {{L|Whole Body}}
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 1 Feb 2003
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = A combination of health problems.
 
| Ischemia = The patient died under hospice care.
 
| Procedure = The patient was washed out and perfused by a previously trained and equipped mortician.
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-47
 
| Type = {{L|Whole Body}}
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 21 Feb 2003
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The case was a death bed signup.
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure = The patient was the first case where {{L|Suspended Animation}} did the {{L|Standby}}, {{L|Stabilization}} and {{L|Transport}} for the {{CryonicsInst}}. SA personnel were at the hospital in Florida for two days prior to death.
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Thomas Munson, Dr.
 
| Identification = A-1217
 
| Type = {{L|Neuro}}
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 24 Feb 2003
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casesummary-munson.html Case Summary]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-48
 
| Type = {{L|Whole Body}}
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 27 Feb 2003
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-1025
 
| Type = {{L|Neuro}}
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 1 Mar 2003
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casesummary1025.html Case Summary]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-1234
 
| Type = {{L|Neuro}}
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 22 Mar 2003
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casesummary1234.html Case Summary]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-49
 
| Type = {{L|Whole Body}}
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 4 Jun 2003
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure = The patient was an emergency signup.
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-50
 
| Type = {{L|Whole Body}}
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 5 Jun 2003
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure = The patient was an emergency signup.
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = PaulSegall.jpg
 
| Name = Paul Segall
 
| Identification = TT-?
 
| Type = Unknown
 
| Organization = {{TT}}?
 
| Lived = - 23 Jun 2003
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Aortic aneurysm
 
| Ischemia = Unknown.
 
| Procedure = The patient was straight frozen because {{L|Trans Time}} did not think he could be perfused<ref name=cryohistory>http://www.benbest.com/cryonics/history.html</ref>.
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-2020
 
| Type = {{L|Neuro}}
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 3 Dec 2003
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/pdfs/casereport0401.pdf Case Report]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Thomas Sullivan
 
| Identification = A-2077
 
| Type = {{L|Brain}}
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 5 Dec 2003
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = * [http://www.mathewsullivan.com/Pictures%20and%20Video.html Pictures and Video]
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure = The brain was chemopreserved nine months prior to cryopreservation by the [http://www.mathewsullivan.com/ Patient's son]. During cooling to LN2 temperature, the patient suffered the largest-amplitude crack on record. See a [http://i935.photobucket.com/albums/ad192/MathewSullivan/ThomasSullivan.jpg picture] of the brain immersed in LN2.
 
}}
 
 
 
=== 2004 ===
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-51
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 13 Jan 2004
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient lived in California.
 
| COD = Cancer.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure = The patient was perfused in a mortuary in California.
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-53
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 6 Apr 2004
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-54
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 6 Apr 2004
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-58
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 6 Apr 2004
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-59
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 6 Apr 2004
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-60
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 6 Apr 2004
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-58
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 6 Apr 2004
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-59
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 6 Apr 2004
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-60
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 6 Apr 2004
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-62
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 7 Apr 2004
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-63
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 29 Apr 2004
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-64
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 17 May 2004
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-65
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 19 Jun 2004
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-66
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 26 Jul 2004
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-67
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 24 Oct 2004
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-68
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 3 Nov 2004
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-2059
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 3 Mar 2004
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/pdfs/casereport0402.pdf Case Report]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = JohnHenryWilliams.jpg
 
| Name = John Henry Williams
 
| Identification = A-2063
 
| Type = Whole Body and Neuro (Stored separately)
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = 27 Aug 1968 - 6 Mar 2004
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was the 35-year-old only son of {{L|Ted Williams}}.
 
| COD = Leukemia.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/pdfs/casereport0501.pdf Case Report]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-1772
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 15 Apr 2004
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/pdfs/casereport0403.pdf Case Report]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-1562
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 27 Apr 2004
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/pdfs/casereport1562.pdf Case Report]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-2068
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 13 May 2004
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/pdfs/casereport2068.pdf Case Report]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-1099
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 10 Oct 2004
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/pdfs/casereport0404.pdf Case Report]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-1321
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 22 Oct 2004
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD =
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casesummary1321.html Case Summary]
 
}}
 
 
 
=== 2005 ===
 
 
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-69
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 13 Aug 2005
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-70
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 19 Nov 2005
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.cryonics.org/reports/CI70.html Case Report]
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = JohnConnole.jpg
 
| Name = John Connole
 
| Identification = CI-71
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 23 Dec 2005
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.cryonics.org/reports/CI71.html Case Report]
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-2024
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 16 Apr 2005
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/pdfs/casereport2024.pdf Case Report]
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-2172
 
| Type = Unknown.
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 19 May 2005
 
| Status = '''<font color="red">THAWED</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure = The cryopreservation was terminated by the relatives, 27 May 2005.
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-2071
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 15 Aug 2005
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/pdfs/casereport2071.pdf Case Report]
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-1398
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 11 Oct 2005
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = GregoryYob.jpg
 
| Name = Gregory Yob
 
| Identification = A-1598
 
| Type = {{L|Neuro}}
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = 1945 - 13 Oct 2005
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient changed his name to Hara Ra.
 
* [http://www.cryonet.org/cgi-bin/dsp.cgi?msg=29879 Remembering Hara Ra]
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/pdfs/casesummary1598.pdf Case Report]
 
}}
 
 
 
=== 2006 ===
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-72
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 17 Jan 2006
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.cryonics.org/reports/CI72.html Case Report]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-73
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 21 Mar 2006
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.cryonics.org/reports/CI73.html Case Report]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-74
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 15 May 2006
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.cryonics.org/reports/CI74.html Case Report]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-75
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 18 Oct 2006
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.cryonics.org/reports/CI75.html Case Report]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-76
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 28 Dec 2006
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.cryonics.org/reports/CI76.html Case Report]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = ThomasKDonaldson.jpg
 
| Name = Thomas K. Donaldson, PhD.
 
| Identification = A-1097
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = 1 Jan 1944 - 19 Jan 2006
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_K._Donaldson Wikipedia Entry]
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/pdfs/casereportA1097.pdf Case Report]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = AnitaRiskin.jpg
 
| Name = Anita Riskin
 
| Identification = A-1356
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 6 Feb 2006
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casesummary1356.html Case Summary]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-1237
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 28 Feb 2006
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casesummary1237.html Case Summary]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-2264
 
| Type = Brain
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 20 Sep 2006
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
 
 
=== 2007 ===
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-77
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 9 Feb 2007
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.cryonics.org/reports/CI77.html Case Report]
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-78
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 19 Mar 2007
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.cryonics.org/reports/CI78.html Case Report]
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-79
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 27 Mar 2007
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.cryonics.org/reports/CI79.html Case Report]
 
}}
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-80
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 1 May 2007
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.cryonics.org/reports/CI80.html Case Report]
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-81
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 11 Jun 2007
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.cryonics.org/reports/CI81.html Case Report]
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-82
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 3-Jul-2007
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.cryonics.org/reports/CI82.html Case Report]
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-83
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 3 Aug 2007
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.cryonics.org/reports/CI83.html Case Report]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = ViolaDufault.jpg
 
| Name = Viola Dufault
 
| Identification = CI-84
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 22-Sep-2007
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.cryonics.org/reports/CI84.html Case Report]
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-85
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 20 Oct 2007
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-1411
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 5 Apr 2007
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-2309
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 18 Jul 2007
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casesummary2309.html Case Summary]
 
}}
 
 
 
=== 2008 ===
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-86
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 9 Feb 2008
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.cryonics.org/reports/CI86.html Case Report]
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Theo Tatton
 
| Identification = CI-87
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 28 Feb 2008
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient had served as the president of the [[#Cryonics Association of Australia|Cryonics Association of Australia]] for over a decade, before resigning due to health concerns. He had helped in the cryopreservation of [[#Roy Schiavello|Roy Schiavello]], Australia's first cryonics patient. At the time of his cryopreservation, he was a 71-year-old retired teacher and father of five children: three sons and two daughters
 
| COD = Prostate cancer (Metastasized to bones and abdomen).
 
| Ischemia = The patient was pronounced immediately after clinical death by his physician. His two sons and a CAA member (Joe Allan) placed him in a bag containing ice and covered him in a blanket for insulation. He was given 25,000 IU of Heparin and Clexane before being placed in a CAA-built shipping container packed with dry ice and shipped to the United States. Arrival took five days.
 
| Procedure = When the container was opened it was found that the patient had frozen. Vitrification was attempted, and perfusion lasted an hour before resistance to flow due to ice damage became evident, and the patient was cooled as fast as possible to the glass transition point.
 
 
 
* [http://www.cryonics.org/reports/CI87.html Case Report]
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-88
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 2 Jun 2008
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.cryonics.org/reports/CI88.html Case Report]
 
}}
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-89
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 7 Jun 2008
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.cryonics.org/reports/CI89.html Case Report]
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-90
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 20 Jun 2008
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.cryonics.org/reports/CI90.html Case Report]
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = JackZinn.jpg
 
| Name = Jack Zinn
 
| Identification = CI-91
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 10 Nov 2008
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.cryonics.org/reports/CI91.html Case Report]
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-1864
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 1 Jan 2008
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casesummary1864.html Case Summary]
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Rose Selkovitch
 
| Identification = A-2340
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 29 Mar 2008
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casesummary2340.html Case Summary]
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-1026
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 30 Apr 2008
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casesummary1026.html Case Summary]
 
}}
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-1831
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 10 May 2008
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casesummary1831.html Case Summary]
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-1212
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 23 July 2008
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casesummary1212.html Case Summary]
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification =A-1407
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 8 Sep 2008
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casesummary1407.html Case Summary]
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Ivy Gladys Eyre
 
| Identification = A-2404
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 6 Oct 2008
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casereportA2404.htm Case Report]
 
}}
 
 
 
=== 2009 ===
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = OrvilleRichardson.jpg
 
| Name = Orville Richardson
 
| Identification = A-2098
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 19 Feb 2009
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure = The patient was received at Alcor September 3, 2010.
 
 
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/pr2010-04-01.html Case Summary]
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-2061
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 7 Jun 2009
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casereportA2061.htm Case Report]
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-2420
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 25 Jul 2009
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/blog/?p=269 Case Summary]
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/pdfs/casereportA2420.pdf Case Report]
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-2435
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 9 Aug 2009
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/blog/?p=270 Case Summary]
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/pdfs/casereportA2435.pdf Case Report]
 
}}
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-2219
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 3 Dec 2009
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/blog/?p=292 Case Summary]
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-92
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 39 Apr 2009
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
* [http://www.cryonics.org/reports/CI92.html Case Report]
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = WilliamORights.jpg
 
| Name = William O'Rights (Billie Joe Bonsall)
 
| Identification = CI-93
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 15 May 2009
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.cryonics.org/reports/CI93.html Case Report]
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-94
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 3 Jul 2009
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = CurtisHenderson.jpg
 
| Name = Curtis Henderson
 
| Identification = CI-95
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = 28 Sep 1926 - 3 Jul 2009
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a pioneer of cryonics. In the [[#1960s|sixties]] he founded the {{L|Cryonics Society of New York}}. He was the the mentor of [[Mike Darwin]].
 
| COD = Liver failure.
 
| Ischemia = One hour twenty minutes of warm ischemia, twelve hours of cold ischemia.
 
| Procedure = {{CI}} director Ben Best thought adding polyethylene glycol to the cryoprotectant solution would inhibit the edema, after being told by his own researchers that PEG is incompatible with solutions containing [[#DMSO|DMSO]]. This mixture formed a thick gel; which was nevertheless injected into the patient. This clogged the filter; resulting in failure to vitrify the brain and massive injury from ice formation.
 
* [http://www.cryonics.org/reports/CI95.html Case Report]
 
* [http://www.suspendedinc.com/cases/Stabilization%20and%20Transport%20Case%20Report%20CI95.pdf Suspended Animation Case Report]
 
}}
 
 
 
== 2010s ==
 
 
 
=== 2010 ===
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-96
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 16 Jun 2010
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.cryonics.org/reports/CI96.html Case Report]
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-97
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 1 Jul 2010
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.cryonics.org/reports/CI97.html Case Report]
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-98
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 9 Jul 2010
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-99
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 17 Sep 2010
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-100
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 20 Sep 2010
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.cryonics.org/reports/CI100.html Case Report]
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-101
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 26 Oct 2010
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.cryonics.org/reports/CI101.html Case Report]
 
}}
 
 
 
=== 2011 ===
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-102
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 23 Jan 2011
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.cryonics.org/reports/CI102.html Case Report]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-103
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 25 Jan 2011
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.cryonics.org/reports/CI103.html Case Report]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-2478
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 25 Mar 2011
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
 
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/blog/?p=1950 Case Summary]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-1408
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 26 May 2011
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
 
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/blog/?p=2114 Case Summary]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-2357
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 17 Jun 2011
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
 
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/blog/?p=2114 Case Summary]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-104
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 5 Jul 2011
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-105
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 9 Jul 2011
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = RobertEttinger.jpg
 
| Name = Robert Ettinger
 
| Identification = CI-106
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = 4 Dec 1918 - 28 Jul 2011
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
* [http://www.cryonics.org/reports/CI106.html Case Report]
 
| COD = Natural causes.
 
| Ischemia = Head was in an ice bath within 30 seconds.
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.cryonics.org/reports/CI100.html Case Report]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-2091
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 18 Aug 2011
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
 
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/blog/?p=2160 Case Summary]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-107
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 31 Aug 2011
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = DennisRoss.jpg
 
| Name = Dennis Ross
 
| Identification = A-1088
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 30 Oct 2011
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Massive intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke due to a ruptured brain aneurysm.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
 
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/blog/?p=2267 Case Summary]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-1546
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 9 Nov 2011
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
 
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/blog/?p=2276 Case Summary]
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/pdfs/casereportA1546.pdf Case Report]
 
}}
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-1277
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = ? - 9 Dec 2011
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
 
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/blog/?p=2388 Case Summary]
 
}}
 
 
 
=== 2012 ===
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = YuliyaVerteletska.jpg
 
| Name = Yuliya Vertelets'ka
 
| Identification = CI-108
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = 6 Apr 1990 - 3 Jan 2012
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Heart infarction, following an ice skating injury to the left leg.
 
| Ischemia = 24 hours of ischemic damage prior to being put in dry ice. The patient was stored for two weeks prior to being cooled to Liquid Nitrogen temperature.
 
| Procedure =
 
 
 
* [http://www.cryonics.org/reports/CI108.html Case Report]
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = William Reeves
 
| Identification = CI-109
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 3 Mar 2012
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
 
 
* [http://www.cryonics.org/reports/CI109.html Case Report]
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia = The medical examiner concluded that the patient died at 2 A.M., eight hours before being found on February 28, 2012. He was packed in water ice and shipped to London, where he was packed with small beads of dry ice; and arrived at the {{CI}} facilities on March 2.
 
| Procedure = The patient was cooled to the temperature of liquid nitrogen and stored in cryostat HSSV−6−12.
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-110
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 4 Apr 2012
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
 
 
* [http://cryonics.org/reports/CI110.html Case Report]
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = CI-111
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{CryonicsInst}}
 
| Lived = ? - 22 May 2012
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = FredChamberlainIII.jpg
 
| Name = Fred Rockwell Chamberlain III
 
| Identification = A-1002
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = 21 Nov 1935 - 22 Mar 2012
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio =
 
| COD = A 19-year-long battle with prostate cancer.
 
| Ischemia =
 
| Procedure =
 
 
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/Library/pdfs/casereportA1002FredChamberlain.pdf Case Report]
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = Withheld
 
| Identification = A-2628
 
| Type = Whole Body
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = 1922 - 23 Jul 2012
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a 90-year-old male
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia = The body was heparinized and cooled at a local (Las Vegas) mortuary, and 22 hours after arrest was airlifted to {{Alcor}}. Cryoprotective perfusion began within six hours.
 
| Procedure =
 
 
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/blog/?p=2633 Case Summary]
 
}}
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = UnknownCorpscicle.jpg
 
| Name = John Monts
 
| Identification = A-1646
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = 1944 - 31 Oct 2012
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a 68 year old male who had been an Alcor member since January of 1997.
 
| COD = Unknown.
 
| Ischemia = The patient was robbed in the evening of his death, which made this an ME's case. The coroner agreed to limit the autopsy to an external cranial examination if Alcor conducted a CT scan and sent the results back. The patient was cooled in dry ice in the meantime. The patient arrived at Alcor in November 7.
 
| Procedure =
 
* [http://www.alcor.org/blog/?p=2697 Case summary]
 
}}
 
 
 
=== 2013 ===
 
 
 
{{Cryopatient
 
| Image = KimSuozzi.jpg
 
| Name = Kim Suozzi
 
| Identification = A-2643
 
| Type = Neuro
 
| Organization = {{Alcor}}
 
| Lived = 10 Jun 1989 - 17 Jan 2013
 
| Status = '''<font color="green">Stored</font>'''
 
| Bio = The patient was a 23-year-old female cognitive science student who was diagnosed with a GBM 10 centimeters away from her frontoparietal lobe. The tumor was removed in March 2011, but later reappeared in her brainstem. The patient enrolled in a clinical trial and was given a life expectancy of six months. The patient expressed interest in cryonics and both the Society for Venturism and Alcor helped run the charity that raised the funds for her cryopreservation.
 
| COD = Glioblastoma multiforme.
 
| Ischemia = Unknown.
 
| Procedure = Unknown.
 
}}
 
  
 
= Alternatives =
 
= Alternatives =

Revision as of 15:05, 9 August 2017

Cryonics is a controversial life extension technique that aims to preserve neural activity and life typically of a recently deceased person through use of preservation techniques and low temperatures so that resurrection may be possible in the future when technologies have improved.

Possible necessary future technologies include:

Imported content

That is not dead that can eternal lie,

and with strange aeons even death may die.

- H.P. Lovecraft

Margaret, Paul, I wish you the very best and it is my most fervent desire that we meet again, hopefully in a time and place where we can laugh and reminisce about the dark ages from which we were so lucky to have made our escape from...
- Mike Darwin

Cryonics is the preservation of dead persons at temperatures low enough to practically stop decomposition, with the intent of future revival. While there is experimental evidence attesting to the conservation of vitrified tissue and the possibilities of repair; the decision to undergo cryonic preservation after death is an act of faith, not of science.

Overview

File:Ettinger with HSSV.jpg
Robert Ettinger dreamed of a time machine that would bridge the gap between today's patients and tomorrow's medicine.

The two main ideas behind cryonics are Information-Theoretic Death and the technology vitrification. The first idea is the idea that our criteria for death has changed as our technology and our understanding of biology has changed. In the 1800s, a person who drowned was considered dead. Information-theoretic death is the 'ultimate' death, the one that we know as fact is irreversible, and does not depend upon a changing understanding of nature. Information theoretic death is reached when the body (Especially the brain) has been damaged to the point that it is beyond repair; where repair means having enough structure and contextual information to bring the brain, along with the personality, memories and attitudes that it contains, back to a functioning state. If tissues have been properly preserved, this revival could be accomplished through a variety of ways, but even the best methods leave behind irreparable damage, which means memory loss and personality changes, and other neurological (Motor control) damage. The latter is sufficiently generic to be repaired when that kind of technology arrives, the former is unique to each person and impossible to recover.

The second idea, vitrification, is a process through which tissue is lowered to cryogenic temperatures without freezing or forming ice. The most widely believed myth about cryonics is that when people are frozen, ice inside their cells bursts and destroys tissue irreparably. This is false on two points: Modern cryonics uses cryoprotectants which prevent ice damage by vitrifying instead of freezing, and the water that forms ice is mostly outside the cells. A common argument against cryoprotectants is that they are toxic: While true, this only affects the prospects of suspended animation through vitrification, since cryonics patients would probably be revived through more complicated means than just thawing them and applying CPR once a cure for what killed them is found.

History

See History of cryonics

Evidence

Revival of Dogs after Profound Hypothermia

Scientists' Open Letter on Cryonics

To whom it may concern,

Cryonics is a legitimate science-based endeavor that seeks to preserve human beings, especially the human brain, by the best technology available. Future technologies for resuscitation can be envisioned that involve molecular repair by nanomedicine, highly advanced computation, detailed control of cell growth, and tissue regeneration.

With a view toward these developments, there is a credible possibility that cryonics performed under the best conditions achievable today can preserve sufficient neurological information to permit eventual restoration of a person to full health.

The rights of people who choose cryonics are important, and should be respected.

The Suda Experiments

Organ Vitrification

Viability of Vitrified Tissue

  • Cryopreservation of rat hippocampal slices by vitrification, Yuri Pichugin, Gregory M. Fahy, Robert Morin. Cryobiology: International Journal of Low Temperature Biology. Link.

Criticism

Interestingly (and somewhat to the author’s surprise) there are no published technical articles on cryonics that claim it won’t work. - Ralph Merkle

Most criticism of cryonics arises from fundamental misconceptions (For example, that cryonics involves freezing) and ignorance of current cryopreservation techniques and procedures.

Scientific American

Martinenaite/Tavenier

Abstract:

The preservation of cells, tissues and organs by cryopreservation is a promising technology nowadays. However, the primary purpose of this science has been diverted to a doubtful technology, cryonics. Cryopreservation techniques are now being adapted with the aim of preserving people’s bodies after death in hope that in the future, medicine will be able to revive them. In this report we analyze both scientific and social issues involved with this technology. We first studied the events taking place in the cells during regular freezing. Various research experiments show that freezing causes damage to the cells. Therefore, vitrification presented by cryonics companies as an alternative, seems to be reasonable. We also looked at all the difficulties of this procedure and at the injuries that such a treatment could cause to the human body. Studies show that the vitrification procedure suppresses the injuries related to freezing but the use of cryoprotectants, although necessary, is toxic to the cells. Organs, such as kidneys, are the largest entities ever vitrified and thawed with success. By analyzing all present scientific data, we conclude that there is a limit to the size of living matter that can be cryonised effectively; therefore we conclude that it is not possible to cryonize an entire human body with the current technology without causing severe damage to it.

While definitely great progress from most cryonics 'criticism' to date, the paper seems to address the well-known fact that reanimation from cryopreservation is impossible (Or nearly so) due to the toxicity of cryoprotectant solutions. The most discussed methods of revival, Molecular Nanotechnology and Whole Brain Emulation are not discussed.

Larry Johnson

Philosophy

While it's sad that people focus on philosophical issues instead of the myriad technical and social problems that plague cryonics, along with its attachment to a history of failure and incompetence, philosophical concerns should still be addressed.

By far the biggest philosophical concern people put forward against cryonics is the issue of continuity of consciousness. In these debates, people can easily talk past each other by using different definitions of what constitutes consciousness and how this relates to personal identity. In general, we have two definitions of consciousness:

  • Real Definition: Consciousness is self-awareness, and thus becomes discontinuous during sleep, unconsciousness, et cetera.
  • Alternate Definition: Consciousness is defined as a subset of (Or the totality of) brain activity, and thus a person's consciousness remains continuous during sleep and what is usually called 'unconsciousness', and only stops when brain activity ceases (Medico-legal death, not necessarily Information-theoretic).

But what is relevant is not the definition of consciousness, but how this matters to personal identity. Again, here we have two opinions:

  • Definition 1: Personal identity is a person's personality and memories. Consciousness is fundamental to life, of course, but its continuity is not fundamental to personal identity (It uses the Real Definition of consciousness).
  • Definition 1: Personal identity is a person's personality, memories, and continuous consciousness (It uses the Alternate Definition of consciousness). When consciousness becomes discontinuous, the identity 'stops' and ceases to exist.

Under Definition 1, cryonics patients will be the same person (± brain damage). Under the second definition, when they are repaired, the patients are fundamentally different people who claim to be the same as the original and only shre personality and memories.

Organizations

Alcor

The Alcor Life Extension Foundation is a Scottsdale, Arizona based nonprofit cryonics company. Incorporated in 1972 as the 'Alcor Society for Solid State Hypothermia' by Fred and Linda Chamberlain, Alcor is currently the largest cryonics company in the world.

Alcor's first cryopreservation took place in 1976 on A-1001, Fred Chamberlain's father. Initially, provided long term storage until 1982.

File:Alcor patient care.jpg
The Alcor Patient Care Bay in 1987. Pictured are the Cephalarium, an upright MVE, and James Bedford's Galiso dewar (Right, horizontal, barely visible). Photo by Mike Darwin.
File:Alcor patient care2.jpg
The Alcor Patient Care Bay today. Hugh Hixon refills a dewar while Mike Perry observes. Photo by Murray Ballard.
File:AlcorFront.jpg
The building of the Alcor Life Extension Foundation

Alcor Criticism

[...] Saul Kent invited me over to his home in Woodcrest, California to view videotapes of two Alcor cases which troubled him – but he couldn’t quite put his finger on why this was so.[...] Patients were being stabilized at a nearby hospice, transported to Alcor (~20 min away) and then CPS was discontinued, the patients were placed on the OR table and, without any ice on their heads, they were allowed to sit there at temperatures a little below normal body temperature for 1 to 1.5 hours, while burr holes were drilled, [...] smoke could be seen coming from the burr wound! Since the patient had no circulation to provide blood to carry away the enormous heat generated by the action of the burr on the bone, the temperature of the underlying bone (and brain) must have been high enough to literally cook an egg. In one case, a patient’s head was removed in the field and, because they had failed to use a rectal plug, the patient had defecated in the PIB. The result was that feces had contaminated the neck wound, and Alcor personnel were seen pouring saline over the stump of the neck whilst holding the patient’s severed head over a bucket trying to wash the fecal matter off the stump. These are just a few of the grotesque problems I observed.[...] - Mike Darwin[1]

Cryonics Institute

The Cryonics Institute is the second largest cryonics organization, a member-owned non-profit; incorporated in Michigan on the 4th of April of 1976 by Robert Ettinger, Mae Junod (Later Mae Ettinger) and Walter Runkel. Only two cryopreservations took place in its first two decades (Both Ettinger's family).

File:CIFrontOld.jpg
The old Detroit facility in 1987. Photo by Mike Darwin.
File:CIFront.jpg
The Cryonics Institute's current location, the Erfurt-Runkel Building.

CI Criticism

Robert Ettinger believed complex perfusion to ensure excellent cryopreservation was not worth the effort, that future technology would eventually find a way to repair any damage. Because of this, he decided to charge a fraction of the cost of other organizations for basic perfusion and long term care. Ettinger claimed that "anything that has existed, can exist"[2], meaning that it can exist again if sufficiently advanced technology is developed.

Robert Ettinger, founder of the cryonics movement, claims that "anything that has existed, can exist", meaning that it can exist again. For an unbounded optimist, this would mean that even a cremated person whose ashes have been scattered on the seas could conceivably be reconstructed. In this view, technology beyond our conception could gather enough evidence to reconstruct, atom-for-atom, human beings who vanished hundreds or thousands of years in the past. [...] Ettinger's Michigan-based Cryonics Institute offers suspensions for nearly a quarter of the cost of the California organizations, in part because Ettinger believes that costly perfusion procedures are unnecessary, relying more on future technology repair capabilities.[...] - Ben Best[3]

This unreasonable optimism has been the source of criticism[4] and is the basis of their decision to accept deceased non-Members signed up by their families, even after hours of warm ischemia. These patients now constitute the majority of CI cases and are only straight frozen.<ref="Darwin's CI criticism">http://chronopause.com/index.php/2011/02/23/does-personal-identity-survive-cryopreservation/#comment-247</ref>

Basically I was commenting on the operational paradigm at CI, which is pretty much “ritual.” You sign up, you get frozen and it’s pretty much kumbaya, no matter how badly things go. And they go pretty badly. Go to: http://cryonics.org/refs.html#cases and start reading the case reports posted there. That’s pretty much my working definition of horrible. It seems apparent to me that “just getting frozen” is now all that is necessary for a ticket to tomorrow, and that anything else that is done is “just gravy,” and probably unnecessary to a happy outcome.

[...]

Even in cases that CI perfuses, things go horribly wrong – often – and usually for to me bizarre and unfathomable (and careless) reasons. My dear friend and mentor Curtis Henderson was little more than straight frozen because CI President Ben Best had this idea that adding polyethylene glycol to the CPA solution would inhibit edema. - Mike Darwin<ref="Darwin's CI criticism">

Another criticism of the Cryonics Institute is their submission to the State of Michigan's decision that CI was a cemetery and could thus no longer perform perfusion on site. Because of this cryoprotectant perfusion has to be done by a cooperative funeral direction, and in most cases these are found on the moment and are not properly trained or equipped. Instead of appealing this decision, they accepted it and surrendered control of the patients to the state, unlike Alcor which has been engaged in a variety of legal disputes, to the point of making cryonics legal in California.

CryoCare Equipment Corporation

Trans Time

According to CI, they have 'has one whole body and two brains'. According to the Daily News of Los Angeles, as of 1990, they have 'five human bodies, two heads and one brain in its main cold suspension capsule'. A second article claims 'has frozen five human bodies, three severed heads, four dogs and three cats'. A 2001 article claims TT no longer has any human patients (Where did they move them? (Other than CI) --Eudoxia 17:08, 17 July 2012 (CDT)).

File:Foote and Trans Time article.jpg
A newspaper article that lists TT patients before 1980. From the Anchorage Daily News, February 10, 1980.
File:TTFront.jpg
The old Trans Time facility.
File:TTFrontNew.jpg
The new Trans Time facility.

TT Criticism

The principal criticism against Trans Time was their for-profit model, in which, if funding ran out, the patients would be thawed and conventionally interred (This is what would've happened to Janice Foote and the Mills couple), unlike other organizations with a pay-once model in which the storage costs for the patients are covered for perpetuity.

Cryonics Society of California

Founded in 1966 by TV-repairman-turned-<redacted> Robert Nelson, CSC carried out the first human cryopreservation, before cryopreserving twelve others and letting the bodies to rot in a cementery.

Nelson had apparently run out of money to maintain the patients in liquid nitrogen, but payed his attorney by selling his Porsche.[5]

In an interview in The Immortalist he stated he was a CI member.

Apparently he tried to start a new cryonics venture, The Continued Life Group. They seem to have had a site, but its existence was only confirmed once and it's not up, and nor does the Web Archive keep copies of it.

There really is no need for a criticism section.

American Cryonics Society

CryoSpan

CryoCare

Minnesota Valley Engineering

MVE was a cryogenics company located in New Prague, Minnesota. They manufactured tanks for cryogenic storage of bull semen for the Minnesota Valley Breeders Association. Edward Schuster, the founder and main stockholder, got in touch with Curtis Henderson near a cryobiology conference in 1967. Schuster said he wanted to build tanks, but did not have the tools (At the time, the only Liquid Nitrogen dewars for the storage of human bodies were the CryoCare Equipment Corporation ones, which required constant mechanical pumping to maintain a vacuum).

After purchasing Hoffmann Cryogenics, Schuster was able to build the A-8000. Some of these tanks have been in continuous operation since the 1960s, for example at 21st Century Genetics in New Prague.

Suspended Animation

Alcor vs CI

Comparison of Services
Alcor Cryonics Inst
Costs
  • Whole Body Patient: $200,000
  • Neuropatient: $80,000

(Through life insurance)

  • Whole Body Patient (Lifetime Member): $28,000
  • Whole Body Patient (Yearly Member): $35,000

(Through life insurance)

Members 968 488
Patients 111 111
Patients Lost 0 0
Services
  • Standby
  • Stabilization & Transport
  • Perfusion
  • Long Term Care
  • Perfusion
  • Long Term Care
Non-profit? Yes Yes
Incorporated 1972 1976
Staff 11 3
Yearly Fees $620 $120
Statistics: Members

(Note that CI considers people who have cryopreserved pets or DNA as members. People with cryonics arrangements are a separate category.)

Ideal Cryonics Organization

  • Procedures
    • Only trained medical professionals are allowed to do perfusions.
  • Outreach and Openness
    • Webcams on 24/7 in both the Patient Care Bay and the Procedures Room.
    • Extensive documentation of every case and every variable and video records of the procedures, published online.
    • Guided tours of the facility explaining every part of the procedure, discussing possibilities of revival, showing the dewars of the Patient Care Bay, how patients are arranged in them, explanations of current research being done, et cetera.
    • Inviting medical professionals and public officials to witness all the procedures for themselves.
  • Research
    • Sizeable part of the budget dedicated towards lowering cryoprotectant toxicity, developing new solutions, et cetera.
  • Facilities
    • Solar array or other energy collectors for energy independence.
    • Equipment for Nitrogen liquefaction, and power for the same.
    • Dewars
      • Bigfoot or larger stored in CryoSpan-style reinforced concrete silos.
      • Fire and blast proofing around the Patient Care Bay.
      • Reopen the neurovaults.

Procedures

See Cryonics procedure

Revival

Damage

The kinds of damage that need to be repaired have been slowly reduced over time, but at present, under the best conditions, the process of cryopreservation still causes severe damage to the Patients.

Cryoprotectant Toxicity

Cracking

There are two forms of cracking: That which is caused by thermal stress, and that which is caused by cooling below Tg. Cracks are generally few and large, which is far better than many smaller cracks; since from an information point of view they cause little damage.

If revival is attempted through Whole Brain Emulation, then fixing cracks is just a matter of adjusting the images. If it is attempted through some form of Biological Repair, this will require other methods to readjust the severed pieces of tissue.

Thermal Stress

Glass Cracks

When materials (Not only glasses) are cooled below their vitrification temperature, cracking occurs. Since the Tg of the cryoprotectant solutions is far above the temperature at which Nitrogen liquefies, cracking occurs during the cooling to this temperature, whether tissue has been vitrified or not. If cryoprotective Perfusion is not carried out properly or is compromised by severe ischemic injury, cracking can begin at temperatures as high as -90 ºC.

A solution for this (In properly perfused patients for whom cracking will only occur below glass transition) is Intermediate Temperature Storage.

Biological Repair

Whole Brain Emulation

See Whole Brain Emulation

File:Cryoultramicrotome.jpg
A cryoultramicrotome used to section tissue at low temperatures.
File:Spikes real and fake.jpg
One of these columns is a graph of the activity of a rat's pyramidal neuron under electrical stimulation. The other is an Izhikevich simulation of the same. This shows that reality and abstract models can have different internal behavior and foundations, but produce the same activity.

This approach to cryonics takes the ideas of information-theoretic death and the central tenets of Whole Brain Emulation (Memory and personality are stored in the brain, consciousness arises from material processes, et cetera) and proposes that cryonics patients may be revived by scanning the connectivity and properties of the cells in their brains (For example, with an ATLUM or some form of high-resolution tomography); and that an abstract, computer model of these properties will be very similar to the person who was cryopreserved.

Process

  1. The vitrified brain is extracted from the patient. Necessary extra fixatives are applied.
  2. The brain is segmented into as many pieces as needed.
  3. Each piece is laminated and scanned by a cryoultramicrotome, ATLUM or some other machine.
    1. Current technology is rather slow, but new massively-parallel electron microscopes are being, developed, primarily by the semiconductor industry. The speed of scanning depends on how many machines you have.
  4. A stack of electron micrographs is built, one for every slice.
  5. Noise is eliminated, different electron micrographs at the same height are pasted together by inferring edge connectivity.
  6. An edge detector traces the contours of neurites and cellular structures.
  7. Other algorithms detect intracellular structures of interest (Polyribosome complexes).
  8. This is done for every layer.
  9. Another algorithm joins the edges in different layers, creating a 3D model of the brain.
  10. Another algorithm uses that model to create a graph of the connectivity of the brain. Each node in this graph is a neuron, and the neuron data structure is supplied with all the necessary extra information acquired by step 7.
  11. After the scan is complete, the graph is stored in a neuromorphic computer; a machine where every processor is a hardware implementation of some model of neurons.
  12. The graph at the lowest level of the stem is joined with a species-generic graph of the connectivity of the spine, ie: Axons of the brain are matched to virtual nerve endings.
  13. The simulation of the body and brain, either connected to a robot or virtual avatar, is started.

Molecular Nanotechnological Repair

See Molecular Manufacturing

The approach of using Molecular Nanotechnology to revive cryonics patients dominated the discussions of the future of cryonics for over a decade since the publication of Engines of Creation, but has now mostly shifted to a historical curiosity.

Postmortem Examination

So far, only three postmortem, post cryopreservation examinations of cryonics patients have been carried out, all three in the 1980's. Some of the data was lost and most of the images are low quality due to being scanned from black-and-white publications. Medical examination provides a chance to examine the damage caused by cryonic preservation to patients on both the macroscale. They also provide the only opportunity to safely remove tissue for histological examinations, due to the fact that extracting tissue from a patient in Liquid Nitrogen could cause severe fracturing and damage from thermal stress, especially if one wishes to extract tissue near the brain or from it.

James Bedford

Source: Evaluation of the Condition of Dr. James H. Bedford After 24 Years of Cryonic Suspension.

  1. Dewar
    1. The dewar had been built in mid 1970 and was failing.
    2. The patient's refilled the dewar regularly for 21 years, preventing the patient from experiencing any significant warming. The presence of water ice, still in the form of cubes, confirms this.
  2. Body
    1. The patient did not have any visible surface fracture events.
    2. Head
      1. The head is turned to the left and two puncture marks ~1cm apart are visible on the anteriomedial aspect of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (Site of injection of the solution).
      2. A frozen, bloody exudade is visible around the mouth and nose, consistent with the presence of a respirator mask and improper chest compressions.
      3. A larger quantity of darker blood appears to have flowed from the mouth during dry ice freezing, as it retains the folds of the wrapping used to cover the patient.
      4. The eyes are partially open and the corneas are white due to ice. The nostrils were flattened, presumably compressed by the weight of dry ice.
      5. The had was fringed with short gray hair.
      6. There were remains of aluminized mylar on the occiput.
    3. Neck
      1. The skin of the left side of the neck is distended with the injection of a fluid bolus into the subcutaneous space.
      2. Examination of the left side of the neck was made impossible by the position of the head.
    4. Limbs
      1. Arms
        1. The skin of the right forearm appeared erythematous and discolored.
      2. Legs
        1. The legs are crossed, with the right foot over the left.
    5. Torso
      1. The skin from the mandible to ~2cm above the areolas appeared erythematous and discolored.
    6. Abdomen
      1. The skin was erythematous.

The general discoloration is probably a product of the injection of pure or highly concentrated DMSO.

Ray Mills

Source: Postmortem Examination of Three Cryonic Suspension Patients.

  1. Dewar
  2. Body
    1. Head
    2. Neck
    3. Limbs
      1. Arms
      2. Legs
    4. Torso
    5. Abdomen

Katherine Mills

Source: Postmortem Examination of Three Cryonic Suspension Patients.

  1. Dewar
  2. Body
    1. Head
    2. Neck
    3. Limbs
      1. Arms
      2. Legs
    4. Torso
    5. Abdomen

Janice Foote

Sources: Postmortem Examination of Three Cryonic Suspension Patients and Histological Study of a Temporarily Cryopreserved Human.

  1. Dewar
    1. The patient had been stored in the Andonian Dewar.
    2. The patient had been stored in an aluminium cassette lined with open-cell urethane foam as insulation.
    3. An overhead crane removed the cassette and placed it on the ground with the patient on a supine position.
  2. Body
    1. Head
    2. Neck
    3. Limbs
      1. Arms
      2. Legs
    4. Torso
    5. Abdomen

Problems

Delay and Ischemic Injury

Lack of Regulation

Storage Safety

The Tyranny of the Singularity

Multi-Century Commitment

Patients

See Cryonics patients

Alternatives

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Freeze Drying

Freeze drying, also known as Lyophilization; consists of freezing tissue, then reducing the atmospheric pressure and applying heat to sublimate the water ice in it. A freeze drying machine is a large chamber of heated shelves. Its atmosphere is connected to a vacuum pump and exposed to refrigeration coils.

In the process, the solid is first frozen; creating damaging ice crystals. The vacuum pump lowers the pressure to .6 ATM; ten, the shelves are heated, and due to the low pressure, the ice sublimates directly. This process can take several days (A single (.1386Kg) human brain took 28 to freeze dry. Slicing it, however, reduced the time to 14 days.[6]).

The material, at least in the case of food, can be preserved for several years without decay.

The main advantages of Lyophilization are that the removal of water and oxygen from tissue will reduce decay, and that it does not require expensive equipment or maintenance. A secure container, however, must be obtained and inspected to ensure that Oxygen does not enter the tissues.

The reduced dependence on equipment increases the safety of the storage and reduces the vulnerability of the tissue. There is some overlap in the storage advantages (Namely very low cost and easy storage) of Plastination. Moreover, freeze-dried material can be cryogenically stored later on.

In terms of cost, a single Lyophilization machine, the Taxi-Dry runs at 'less than a dollar a day', and most machines capable of fitting a human brain, head or body cost above $10,000, significantly cheaper than the cheapest perfusion machine.

The most obvious disadvantage is the the Lyophilization process is very destructive it itself. Since freezing happens before dehydration, ice crystals form. When they sublimate, the structural integrity of the tissue is compromised, due to the pores this leaves behind. This might be a solvable problem, but for now, the process is more destructive than the standard Vitrification protocol. Freeze drying also leaves 2% moisture, reducing the storage time to mere years.

Plastination

Recently, the Brain Preservation Foundation has launched the Brain Preservation Technology Prize, a $100,000+ prize to anyone who can preserve an entire human brain for a long amount of time, such that every neurological feature is preserved and can be examined with today's electron microscopy. Ken Hayworth believes this will be a form of plastination.

Alcohol Storage

Alcohol storage is an old and still widely used preservation method. If storing whole organisms, removal of the intestines is required. Proper storage can be achieved with 70%-90% purity alcohol or methylated spirit. To better preserve the DNA, sodium chloride (Common salt) can be added. 5% Glycerine also supposedly protects the specimen should an accident cause the alcohol to escape or evaporate. The container should be sealed and stored in a dark and cool place, such as a freezer.

The container's alcohol should be replaced at least once, a few weeks after immersion (Or whenever the liquid starts to turn darker or cloudy), as body fluids seep out and contaminate the alcohol. The above-mentioned additives should only be added after the replacement of the alcohol.

While alcohol preservation is very cheap and easy to do, both commercially and DIY (All it takes it some alcohol, a glass container and a freezer), it is overall a very poor preservation method, at least from the perspective of what cryonics tries to achieve: Under a microscopy, they degrade into mush after only a few months.

While biological specimens can be stored for many decades without exterior degradation (Einstein's brain and the Tasmanian Tiger "clone pup", the latter remaining integral after 130 years of alcohol storage), it only preserves macroscopic structure, and maybe enough genetic material to make a clone. Another, less significant issue, is the flammability of alcohol.

Permafrost Burial

File:Permafrost distribution.jpg
Distribution of permafrost in the Northern Hemisphere. Map by Philippe Rekacewicz, UNEP/GRID-Arendal; data from International Permafrost Association, 1998. Circumpolar Active-Layer Permafrost System (CAPS), version 1.0.
File:Permafrost temperature.jpg
Permafrost temperature profile.
Record Low Temperatures
Location Lowest Recorder Temperature (Cº)
Vostok, Antarctica -89.2ºC
Plateau Station, Antarctica -84ºC
Oymyakon, Russia -71.1ºC
Northice, Greenland -66ºC
Snag, Yukon -63ºC
Rogers Pass, Montana -56.5ºC

Roadmap

Cryoprotectant toxicity

  • Non-toxic cryoprotectants
    • Fractures would still be a problem when around Tg.
      • Fractures in some cases will require vascular surgery (Katherine Mills; severed aorta) and in the worst cases organ transplantation & spinal cord replacement/regeneration (Janice Foote, almost severed lung, spinal cord severed in 3). See the postmortem examination.
  • The Prometheus Project tried to achieve reversible brain cryopreservation, but this didn't pan out.

Research into Alternatives

  • Alternatives to cryonics may produce low-cost solutions for long term storage of patients
  • May also increase chances of revival and better preserve the tissues
  • Things like plastination may be more easily accepted by the mainstream neuroscience community

Books

The Prospect of Immortality by [[Robert Ettinger]], 1962
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The First Immortal: A Novel Of The Future by James L. Halperin, 1998
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Man into Superman: The Startling Potential of Human Evolution -- And How To Be Part of It by [[Robert Ettinger]], 1972
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Connectome: How the Brain's Wiring Makes Us Who We Are by [[Sebastian Seung]], 2012
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Publications

In Popular Culture

See Cryonics in popular culture

Glossary

  • 21CM: 21st Century Medicine, Inc.
  • ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate.
  • BBB: Blood Brain Barrier.
  • CNS: Central Nervous System.
  • Corpscicle: See Patient.
  • CPB: Cardiopulmonary Bypass.
  • CPA: CryoProtectant Agent.
  • CPS: CryoProtectant Solution.
  • CPR: Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.
  • Cryostat: A custom-made, fiberglass storage tank of Liquid Nitrogen for cryopatients. It is not a dewar, due to the isolation being perlite surrounded by soft vacuum. It is used by the CryonicsInst.
  • CT: Computerized Tomography.
  • Deanimate: 'Die', but not in the information-theoretic death. A term used to describe cryonicists who experience legal death and are cryopreserved.
  • Deep Hypothermia:10-27ºC.
  • Dewar: A container used to store Liquid Nitrogen. It consists of two containers, separated by a vacuum jacket in the middle. The vacuum provides isolation by preventing convective heat exchange.
  • ECMO: Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.
  • EM: Electron Microscope or Electron Microscopy.
  • EMS: Emergency Medical System.
  • HD: Hemodialysis.
  • HLM: Heart Lung Machine.
  • ICP: Intracranial Pressure.
  • ITS: Intermediate Temperature Storage.
  • LAPC: Liquid Assisted Pulmonary Cooling.
  • ME Case: A cryonics patient who is autopsied prior to cryopreservation.
  • MH: Mild Hypothermia; 33-35ºC.
  • MI: Myocardial Infarction.
  • MRI: Magnetic Resonance Imaging.
  • MSOF: Multiple System Organ Failure.
  • MW: Molecular Weight.
  • Neuro: A type of patient for which only the head is stored.
  • NMR: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.
  • O2: Oxygen.
  • Patient: A cadaver under the custody of a cryonics organization.
  • Perfuse: Infuse an organ or system with a fluid, in the case of cryonics, Cryoprotectant solutions.
  • Perfusate: The solution that is used for perfusion.
  • SAH: Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.
  • SCA: Sudden Cardiac Arrest.
  • Tg: The glass transition temperature.
  • PIB: Portable Ice Bath.
  • Whole Body: A type of patient for which the whole body is cryopreserved and stored.
  • WBE: Whole Brain Emulation.

People

See Also

Resources

Links

Video

Audio

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 A visit to alcor
  2. Ben Best. The Permafrost Papers. Link.
  3. http://www.cryocdn.org/perma.html#mypci
  4. Link.
  5. Hope on Ice. LA Times Magazine, January 2010. Link.
  6. Freeze-Drying Biological Specimens: A Laboratory Manual
  7. http://issuu.com/alcorlife/docs
  8. http://www.cryonics.org/resources/long-life-magazine

External links