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Grinder(s) are people who apply the hacker ethic to improve their own [biological] bodies with do-it-yourself cybernetic devices and self-mutations. Many grinders identify with the biopunk movement (also rarely admitted with cyberculture/cyberpunk movement as well and sometimes with postcyberpunk or cypherpunk movements), open source transhumanism, and technoprogressivism.


A biohacker is a biopunk hobbyist who experiments with DNA and other aspects of genetics.[1][2] A biohacker (or "wetware hacker") is similar to a computer hacker who creates and modifies software or computer hardware as a hobby, but should not be confused with a bioterrorist, whose sole intent is the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria, or other germs used to cause illness or death in people, animals, or plants (in the same way a computer hacker should not be confused with the more popular, yet erroneous, use of the term, describing someone who spreads computer viruses or breaks into computers systems for malicious purposes).[3]

Pat Mooney, executive director of ETC Group, is a critic of biohacking who argues that—using a laptop computer, published gene sequence information, and mail-order synthetic DNA—just about anyone has the potential to construct genes or entire genomes from scratch (including those of the lethal pathogens) in the near-future. He warns that the danger of this development is not just bio-terror, but "bio-error".[4]

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