Artificial intelligence (also AI) refers to a software construct capable of near-human, human, or super-human levels of intelligence. Defining characteristics of any AI include machine learning.
AI is currently an major industry growth areas slash buzzword, often supplanting jargon such as 'big data'.
Types of AI
There are various types of AI which can generally be broken down into two categories; Weak AI and Strong AI.
TechnoPedia describes the differences between the two as; "Weak artificial intelligence is a form of AI specifically designed to be focused on a narrow task and to seem very intelligent at it. It contrasts with strong AI, in which an AI is capable of all and any cognitive functions that a human may have, and is in essence no different than a real human mind." 
In popular culture
There are many different ethical concerns related to AI, which can best be understood by plotting them across two axes: time scale and agent vs. subject.
- Artificial Intelligence on Wikipedia
- Existential risk from artificial general intelligence on Wikipedia
- /r/ControlProblem on Reddit