Cadena de Bloques
A blockchain is a distributed ledger in which transactions are incorporated into cryptographically secure blocks. This allows a trustless, peer-to-peer method for achieving consensus, and was a solution to a long standing unsolved problem in computer science known as the Byzantine Generals Problem. A valid chain is one which at least 51% of the network agrees is the longest. Computations supporting the network are performed by 'miners', programs which maintain a copy of the longest chain and use brute force computation to discover the next block, which will be some cryptographic hash function that satisfies the encrypted header of the previous block, for bitcoin this function is SHA-2, other cryptocurrencies use different functions, for example Litecoin uses Scrypt. Blockchain was first described by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2009 and applied to the bitcoin protocol. Distributed currency grew from the cypherpunk movement in the 1980s and 1990s and is a successor to the earlier hashcach system.
Users are incentivised to host and secure the database through a process known as 'mining', whereby a node is rewarded for a proof of work with a portion of uniquely signed cryptographic data. This may be performed by solving a cryptographic puzzle, showing proof of bandwidth or proof of storage. The proof of bandwidth model is similar to that of the popular BitTorrent protocol, which forces users to upload sufficient data to be eligible to download data.
La propiedad de "bloques" arbitrarios de la cadena se puede transferir criptográficamente a diferentes direcciones en la red, lo que requiere que, en última instancia, toda la red llegue a un consenso sobre quién posee qué dentro de la red.
Bitcoin itself has enjoyed success as a censorship-resistant digital cash-like currency. Due to the potential level of anonymity offered, it has become the currency of choice of cyber criminals involved with carding and darknet markets and has various associations with the dark web. However it has allowed websites and individuals to accept anonymous payments and donations without creating a digital footprint uses of PayPal or credit cards would otherwise leave, protecting the anonymity of both parties involved from traditional payment system compromise and mass surveillance.
Artists have suggested automatic digital registration of creations could provide digitally signed proofs of creation.
[http:/www.coindesk.com/block-chain-technology-digital-democracy/ Transparent voting systems]
Investigacion en Cadena de Bloques
Blockchain technology is potentially one of the most powerful methods for achieving trustless, distributed consensus. Its ability to transparently show cryptographically secure decisions has applications to contracts, law, and government. Original peer-reviewed research articles on technical and social aspects of blockchain technology can be found in the open-access journal Ledger.
Bitcoin suffers from being both overly hyped and overly criticised. Criticisms include:
- Inversionistas de bombeo y descarga causados por la falta de regulación tradicional
- Volatilidad de precios, especialmente burbujas y caídas notorias
- Utilizar como materia prima de inversión
- Disfunción de sus componentes centralizados, en particular el equipo de desarrollo central y grupos de minería cada vez más centralizados
- Satoshi Nakamoto. programador y creador de Bitcoin.
- Charles Hoskinson. Creador de Cardano y cocreador de Ethereum.