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Environmentalism describes a wide range of philosophies and social movements concerned with promoting the well-being of the environment, and managing society's attitudes and impact upon it.

Types and Trends

Alex Steffen coined the terminology of the "new environmental spectrum"[1] to articulate between trends in the varied environmental movements, all in opposition to gray perspectives that are indifferent or hostile to environmentalism.

Dark Green

Dark green environmentalism views industrial civilization as inherently antagonistic to (and often mutually exclusive with) environmental health. Primitivism is a prominent example of dark green ideology.

Light Green

Light green environmentalism covers a wide range of perspectives that call for the advancement of environmentalism largely through responsible personal choices.

Bright Green

Bright green environmentalism considers social and technological innovation the most promising means of achieving sustainability and minimizing environmental consequences. The Viridian Design Movement, Technogaianism, and Solarpunk are examples within the bright green category.

Relationship to Transhumanism

Several existential risks as identified by Nick Bostrom are environmental in nature, necessitating active environmentalist interest in mitigating them.

The October 2016 Brussels Declaration references more widespread environmentalism as a secondary effect of curing aging, owing the self-interest of individuals expecting to live much longer lifespans.

Transpolitica's Green tech initiative advocates a bright green perspective as government policy.

See also


  1. Alex Steffen, Bright Green, Light Green, Dark Green, Gray: The New Environmental Spectrum, Worldchanging, February 27, 2009.

External Links