Cognitive science is the study of mind in humans and nonhumans. It can be best understood as the integration of academic disciplines ranging across neuroscience (cognitive neuroscience), psychology (cognitive psychology), computer science (artificial intelligence), linguistics (psycholinguistics), anthropology (cognitive anthropology), and philosophy (philosophy of mind) that all share the common theme of attempting to understand the cognitive functions of the mind such as intelligence, language, perception, reasoning, consciousness, learning, and memory.
Cognitive science emerged in the 1950s from advances in computer science as a reaction against the dominant behaviorism school of thought in psychology, an event known as the Cognitive Revolution. Cognitive scientists view the mind as an information processing system akin to a computer which stores information in conceptual structures and then performs computation on that information (two different theories known as connectionism and the computational theory of mind). Or in other words, the mind and its functions can be explained in terms of algorithms similar to a computer. The multiple realizability argument is also popular in cognitive science, which holds that various different kinds of physical states can create the same mental states such as pain, and thus computers and robots can be described as having cognition.
Topics in futurism that intersect with cognitive science include artificial intelligence, The Singularity, nootropics, uplifting, robotics, brain-computer interfaces, whole brain emulation, mind uploading, and virtual reality.