Panpsychism is the doctrine or belief that everything material, however small, has an element of individual consciousness.
"In philosophy, panpsychism is the view that consciousness, mind, or soul is a universal and primordial feature of all things. Panpsychists see themselves as minds in a world of mind. Panpsychism is the view that mentality is fundamental and ubiquitous in the natural world. The view has a long and venerable history in philosophical traditions of both East and West, and has recently enjoyed a revival in analytic philosophy. For its proponents panpsychism offers an attractive middle way between physicalism on the one hand and dualism on the other. The worry with dualism—the view that mind and matter are fundamentally different kinds of thing—is that it leaves us with a radically disunified picture of nature, and the deep difficulty of understanding how mind and brain interact."
- The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
- David Chalmers: How Does Panpsychism Fit in Between Dualism and Materialism?
- Philosophy Now. The Case For Panpsychism.
- Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy