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'''Eugenics''' is the practice of improving the genetic quality of the human population through various practices.
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'''Eugenics''' refers to a variety of beliefs and practices seeking to improve the genetic quality of a human population.
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Heavily criticized, its advocacy is typically based on [[junk science]] that overstates the role of hereditary traits in personal development and overlooks environmental and social factors, frequently to excuse classism and [[scientific racism]].
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Many precursors to the modern [[transhumanism|transhumanist]] movement come from eugenics, including the origin of the word "transhumanism" itself.  A common [[criticism of transhumanism]] is the observation that many advocated positions, whether directed by authorities or by the combined effect of prejudice on individual choices, may constitute <i>de facto</i> eugenics.
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== Practices ==
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Techniques can typically be divided into '''positive eugenics''', which encourage reproduction among those with desirable traits, and '''negative eugenics''', which discourage those deemed "unfit" or undesirable.
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=== Positive Eugenics ===
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'''Positive eugenics'''
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=== Negative Eugenics ===
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'''Negative eugenics'''
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=== Liberal and New Eugenics ===
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'''Liberal eugenics''', coined by [[Nicholas Agar]], attempts to address the issues of eugenic coercion, arguing from a position based on individual procreative freedom and parental choice, with state intervention only to prohibit choices deemed injurious to the child.
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== History and Implementations ==
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=== Ancient History ===
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Very early philosophical precursors may be found in Plato's <i>Republic</i> c. 400 BCE, suggesting applying selective breeding practices. Early Roman law mandated the infanticide of deformed children.
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=== Development in the United Kingdom ===
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=== Spread to North America and popular adoption ===
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==== The Jukes family ====
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==== The "Kallikak" family ====
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In 1912, the movement was further advanced by the publication of <i>The Kallikak Family: A Study in the Heredity of Feeble-Mindedness</i> by Henry H. Goddard and its subsequent popularity.  The book portrays a falsified history of a family divided into "good" and "bad" branches to demonstrate the heredity of "feeble-mindedness."
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In truth, the families were unrelated, and many of the portrayed deficiencies of the "bad" branch of the family were fabricated or heavily embellished, while non-hereditary factors such as nutrional deficiencies and fetal alcohol syndrome were ignored.
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=== Nazi Germany ===
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==== Anti-miscegenation ====
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==== Sterilization of Afro-Germans ====
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==== Aktion T4 ====
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=== Chinese one-child policy ===
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=== Peru ===
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== Modern occurences ==
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=== China ===
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=== United States ===
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==== California ====
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Between 1997 and 2010, coercive sterilization was carried out on at least 148 female inmates in California prisons deemed to be at risk of reincarceration.<ref name="npr-ca-prison-sterilizations">[https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2013/07/09/200444613/californias-prison-sterilizations-reportedly-echoes-eugenics-era California's Prison Sterilizations Reportedly Echo Eugenics Era], Bill Chappel, <i>NPR</i>, July 09, 2013.</ref>
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The term '[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberal_eugenics liberal eugenics]' has sought to focus on reclaiming the positive elements such as in-utero treatment of genetic conditions, but is so unpopular some transhumanists prefer<ref>[http://pirate.london/2015/11/no-transhumanists-do-not-support-eugenics-we-support-super-babies/ No, transhumanists do not support eugenics, we support super babies]</ref> the term [[Superhumans|super babies]] instead.
   
== See also ==
 
== See also ==
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* [[Gattaca]]
 
* [[Gattaca]]
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==External Links==
 
==External Links==
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* {{wikipedia|Eugenics}}
 
* {{wikipedia|Eugenics}}
 
* [http://www.amazon.com/Babies-Design-Ethics-Genetic-Choice/dp/0300143087 "Babies by design: The ethics of genetic choice"] - 2008 book by Ronald Green
 
* [http://www.amazon.com/Babies-Design-Ethics-Genetic-Choice/dp/0300143087 "Babies by design: The ethics of genetic choice"] - 2008 book by Ronald Green
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[[Category:Eugenics]]
 
[[Category:Eugenics]]
 
[[Category:Opposition to transhumanism]]
 
[[Category:Opposition to transhumanism]]
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[[Category:Pseudoscience]]
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