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blood dilution info
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'''Young blood''' is blood from a young organism. Studies have shown regenerative effects in old mice whose blood was exchanged with young blood. Controversial young blood transfusion trials with humans have had unclear results.
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'''Young blood''' is blood from a young organism. Studies have shown regenerative effects in old mice whose blood was exchanged with young blood. However, research suggests this is was due to circulatory access to the young donors' organs and dilution of old blood, rather than rejuvenation by the young blood. Controversial young blood transfusion trials with humans have had unclear results.
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== Methods ==
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== Animal studies ==
    
Multiple studies have shown positive effects in old mice who have undergone parabiosis, the connection of circulatory systems, with young mice. However, young mice with blood from old mice see negative effects more prominent than benefits to old mice with young blood.
 
Multiple studies have shown positive effects in old mice who have undergone parabiosis, the connection of circulatory systems, with young mice. However, young mice with blood from old mice see negative effects more prominent than benefits to old mice with young blood.
    
Some lesser benefit, such as muscle regeneration, has also been seen in old mice who have undergone non-parabiotic blood exchange with young mice. Researchers suggested that the parabiosis might have been more effective due to access to the young mice's organs.<ref name="rebo">Rebo, J; Mehdipour, M; Gathwala, R; et al (22 November 2016). [https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms13363 "A single heterochronic blood exchange reveals rapid inhibition of multiple tissues by old blood"]. ''Nature Communications''. '''7''' (13363). doi:10.1038/ncomms13363</ref>
 
Some lesser benefit, such as muscle regeneration, has also been seen in old mice who have undergone non-parabiotic blood exchange with young mice. Researchers suggested that the parabiosis might have been more effective due to access to the young mice's organs.<ref name="rebo">Rebo, J; Mehdipour, M; Gathwala, R; et al (22 November 2016). [https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms13363 "A single heterochronic blood exchange reveals rapid inhibition of multiple tissues by old blood"]. ''Nature Communications''. '''7''' (13363). doi:10.1038/ncomms13363</ref>
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A more recent study has shown that diluting old blood plasma with saline was at least as rejuvenating as non-parabiotic blood exchange. The researchers suggest that this is due to simply removing harmful factors in old blood, thus giving an explanation of the benefits in the non-parabiotic exchange other than rejuvenating factors in young blood.<ref name="mehdipour">Mehdipour, M; Skinner, C; Wong, N; Lieb, M; Liu, C; Etienne, J; Kato, C; Kiprov, D; Conboy, M J; Conboy, I M (30 May 2020). [https://www.aging-us.com/article/103418 "Rejuvenation of three germ layers tissues by exchanging old blood plasma with saline-albumin"]. ''Aging''. '''12''' (10). doi:10.18632/aging.103418</ref>
    
== Human trials ==
 
== Human trials ==
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