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'''Young blood''' is blood from a young organism. Studies have shown regenerative effects in old mice whose blood was exchanged with young blood. However, research suggests this is was due to circulatory access to the young donors' organs and dilution of old blood, rather than rejuvenation by the young blood. Controversial young blood transfusion trials with humans have had unclear results.
 
'''Young blood''' is blood from a young organism. Studies have shown regenerative effects in old mice whose blood was exchanged with young blood. However, research suggests this is was due to circulatory access to the young donors' organs and dilution of old blood, rather than rejuvenation by the young blood. Controversial young blood transfusion trials with humans have had unclear results.
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== Animal studies ==
 
== Animal studies ==
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A more recent study has shown that diluting old blood plasma with saline was at least as rejuvenating as non-parabiotic blood exchange. The researchers suggest that this is due to simply removing harmful factors in old blood, thus giving an explanation of the benefits in the non-parabiotic exchange other than rejuvenating factors in young blood.<ref name="mehdipour">Mehdipour, M; Skinner, C; Wong, N; Lieb, M; Liu, C; Etienne, J; Kato, C; Kiprov, D; Conboy, M J; Conboy, I M (30 May 2020). [https://www.aging-us.com/article/103418 "Rejuvenation of three germ layers tissues by exchanging old blood plasma with saline-albumin"]. ''Aging''. '''12''' (10). doi:10.18632/aging.103418</ref>
 
A more recent study has shown that diluting old blood plasma with saline was at least as rejuvenating as non-parabiotic blood exchange. The researchers suggest that this is due to simply removing harmful factors in old blood, thus giving an explanation of the benefits in the non-parabiotic exchange other than rejuvenating factors in young blood.<ref name="mehdipour">Mehdipour, M; Skinner, C; Wong, N; Lieb, M; Liu, C; Etienne, J; Kato, C; Kiprov, D; Conboy, M J; Conboy, I M (30 May 2020). [https://www.aging-us.com/article/103418 "Rejuvenation of three germ layers tissues by exchanging old blood plasma with saline-albumin"]. ''Aging''. '''12''' (10). doi:10.18632/aging.103418</ref>
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== Human trials ==
 
== Human trials ==
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Biotech startup [[Ambrosia]] ran a human trial from 2016 to 2018.<ref>[https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT02803554 "Young Donor Plasma Transfusion and Age-Related Biomarkers"]. ''ClinicalTrials.gov''.</ref> This was criticised for its risk to participants, requirement for participants to pay thousands of dollars, lack of a control group, and lack of published result data despite the declared intention to publish them.<ref name="huffpo1">Liebelson, Dana; Cook, Jesselyn (29 December 2018). [https://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/entry/ambrosia-young-blood-plasma-jesse-karmazin_n_5c1bbafce4b0407e9078373c?ri18n=true "He Hawks Young Blood As A New Miracle Treatment. All That's Missing Is Proof."] ''HuffPost''.</ref> Additionally, a 65-year-old participant died the month after the conclusion of the study, which was initially denied but later admitted by Ambrosia's founder.<ref name="huffpo2">Cook, Jesselyn (3 October 2019). [https://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/entry/ambrosia-young-blood-plasma-jesse-karmazin_n_5c1bbafce4b0407e9078373c?ri18n=true "Notorious ‘Young Blood’ Doctor Claims Dead Patient Faked His Own Death"]. ''HuffPost''.</ref>
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Biotech startup [[Special:MyLanguage/Ambrosia|Ambrosia]] ran a human trial from 2016 to 2018.<ref>[https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT02803554 "Young Donor Plasma Transfusion and Age-Related Biomarkers"]. ''ClinicalTrials.gov''.</ref> This was criticised for its risk to participants, requirement for participants to pay thousands of dollars, lack of a control group, and lack of published result data despite the declared intention to publish them.<ref name="huffpo1">Liebelson, Dana; Cook, Jesselyn (29 December 2018). [https://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/entry/ambrosia-young-blood-plasma-jesse-karmazin_n_5c1bbafce4b0407e9078373c?ri18n=true "He Hawks Young Blood As A New Miracle Treatment. All That's Missing Is Proof."] ''HuffPost''.</ref> Additionally, a 65-year-old participant died the month after the conclusion of the study, which was initially denied but later admitted by Ambrosia's founder.<ref name="huffpo2">Cook, Jesselyn (3 October 2019). [https://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/entry/ambrosia-young-blood-plasma-jesse-karmazin_n_5c1bbafce4b0407e9078373c?ri18n=true "Notorious ‘Young Blood’ Doctor Claims Dead Patient Faked His Own Death"]. ''HuffPost''.</ref>
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Another trial was started in 2018 by the [[Special:MyLanguage/Maharaj Institute|Maharaj Institute]] with estimated completion in 2023. Its plan is to give monthly transfusions of blood plasma from young donors to old and frail participants.<ref>[https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03458429 "Safety, Efficacy of FFP From Healthy Donors to AmeliorateFrailty and Enhance Immune Function in Older Individuals"]. ''ClinicalTrials.gov''.</ref> The trial also has no placebo group and asked for payment to participate.<ref>Robbins, Rebecca (2 March 2018). [https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/young-blood-transfusions-are-on-the-menu-at-society-gala/ "Young-Blood Transfusions Are on the Menu at Society Gala"]. ''STAT''.</ref>
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Another trial was started in 2018 by the [[Maharaj Institute]] with estimated completion in 2023. Its plan is to give monthly transfusions of blood plasma from young donors to old and frail participants.<ref>[https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03458429 "Safety, Efficacy of FFP From Healthy Donors to AmeliorateFrailty and Enhance Immune Function in Older Individuals"]. ''ClinicalTrials.gov''.</ref> The trial also has no placebo group and asked for payment to participate.<ref>Robbins, Rebecca (2 March 2018). [https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/young-blood-transfusions-are-on-the-menu-at-society-gala/ "Young-Blood Transfusions Are on the Menu at Society Gala"]. ''STAT''.</ref>
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The [[Special:MyLanguage/Young Blood Institute|Young Blood Institute]] have also run trials with blood plasma.<ref>Basu, Tanya; Weill, Kelly (22 February 2019). [https://www.thedailybeast.com/fda-warns-dont-give-these-companies-your-young-blood "FDA Warns: Don't Give These Companies Your 'Young Blood'"]. ''The Daily Beast''.</ref>
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The [[Young Blood Institute]] have also run trials with blood plasma.<ref>Basu, Tanya; Weill, Kelly (22 February 2019). [https://www.thedailybeast.com/fda-warns-dont-give-these-companies-your-young-blood "FDA Warns: Don't Give These Companies Your 'Young Blood'"]. ''The Daily Beast''.</ref>
      
== References ==
 
== References ==
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{{reflist}}
 
{{reflist}}
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== External links ==
 
== External links ==
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* {{Wikipedia|Young blood transfusion}}
 
* {{Wikipedia|Young blood transfusion}}
    
[[Category:Life extensionism]]
 
[[Category:Life extensionism]]
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