Techno-utopianism or technological utopianism is an ideology based on the premise that advances in science and technology may eventually bring about a utopia (a "perfect society"), or at least help to fulfil a utopian ideal.
19th and 20th century liberal thinkers like Karl Marx believed the power of technology would end the eras of kings and the church. The later association of the idea with eugenics and world war 2 led to the term falling out of favour for some time.
The rise of a Silicon Valley anti-authoritarian counter-culture in the computing industry and science fiction led once again to the idea that technology could increase personal freedoms and issue in an new era. Crypto-anarchists and affiliates such as Julian Assange would take the idea of technology as a tool against government oppression to its logical conclusion.
Critics of the idea, as well as the related idea techno-optimism, cite its lack of social policy and environmental concerns as well as the risk of unequal access to technologies.
Many transhumanists are, or are perceived as technological utopians, as well as technophiles. As such, perceived uncritical support for the assumed inevitable benefits technology will bring without corresponding caution towards new technologies can increase scepticism towards the movement. Transhumanism as a religion is a common criticism.
In The Transhumanist Reader, Natasha Vita-More challenges the misconception that transhumanists want to live in a static utopian posthuman world, instead emphasising the need for continual change, a concept known as extropia.