U.S. Transhumanist Party
The United States Transhumanist Party is an American political organization founded in 2014 by Zoltan Istvan and led by Gennady Stolyarov since 2016. It is associated with various U.S. state parties.
The party was a vehicle for Istvan's 2016 presidential campaign, after which leadership was transferred to Stolyarov. After initially endorsing the candidacy of Johannon Ben Zion for President of the United States in the 2020 general election, the party withdrew the endorsement in June 2020 and endorsed Charlie Kam for President instead.
- 1 History
- 2 Transhuman Party dispute
- 3 Academic Assessments
- 4 Subchapters
- 5 External links
- 6 References
Zoltan Istvan: October 2014 - November 2016
During this period Zoltan began an aggressive period of marketing for the organisation, including the Immortality Bus tour and a Transhumanist Bill of Rights. Such activity was often a solo endevour, with supporters around the US joining him for a variety of events and functions.
On September 19th, 2015, Hank Pellissier quit his position as secretary of the party, saying that it lacked transparency and democratic process. On October 12th Transhumanist Party UK released a statement that "Zoltan Istvan does not speak for the Transhumanist Party" in response to his failure to engage with the wider community and transhumanist party movement.
This reflected a disconnection between the existing politically engaged transhumanist community and Zoltan's activities and statements, leading to the formation of the Transhuman National Committee.
- Zoltan Istvan - Chairman & Treasurer,
- L. M. Memmel, M.D. - Secretary,
- Chris T. Armstrong - Director of Volunteers
- Gabriel Rothblatt - Political Advisor,
- Riva-Melissa Tez - Strategic Advisor,
- Aubrey de Grey, PhD - Anti-aging Advisor,
- Gray Scott - Futurist Advisor,
- James Clement, J.D., LL.M. - Strategic Advisor,
- José Cordeiro, PhD - Technology Advisor,
- Giovanni Santostasi, PhD - Neuroscience Advisor,
- Joe N. Carey, M.D. - Medical Advisor,
- Rich Lee - Biohacker Advisor,
- Maria Konovalenko, PhD Cand. - Longevity Advisor,
- Rachel Lyn Edler - Media Advisor,
- Newton Lee - Campaign Advisor
Gennady Stolyarov relaunch: November 2016 onwards
Following the end of the 2016 presidential election, Zoltan's 2016 presidential campaign was completed, the party leadership has been transferred to Gennady Stolyarov II, and the organisation restructured in various ways.
Under Chairman Stolyarov, the U.S. Transhumanist Party adopted am interim Constitution , which includes three immutable Core Ideals in Article I, Section I:
- Ideal 1. The Transhumanist Party supports significant life extension achieved through the progress of science and technology.
- Ideal 2. The Transhumanist Party supports a cultural, societal, and political atmosphere informed and animated by reason, science, and secular values.
- Ideal 3. The Transhumanist Party supports efforts to use science, technology, and rational discourse to reduce and eliminate various existential risks to the human species.
New leadership positions include Arin Vahanian as Vice-Chairman, Pavel Ilin as Secretary, Caeus H. Antony as Vice-Secretary, Justin Waters as Legislative Director, Tom Ross as Director of Sentient Rights Advocacy, David Shumaker as Director of Applied Innovation, Brent Reitze as Director of Publication, Dan Elton as Director of Scholarship, Charlie Kam as Director of Marketing, John Kerecz as Director of Energy Issues, Art Ramon Garcia, Jr. as Director of Visual Art, Daniel Yeluashvili as Director of Longevity Outreach, and B.J. Murphy as Director of Foreign Relations.
Restructured advisor positions include: Zoltan Istvan as Political and Media Advisor, Bill Andrews as Biotechnology Advisor, Jose Cordeiro as Technology Advisor, Newton Lee as Education and Media Advisor, Keith Comito as Crowdfunding Advisor, Aubrey de Grey as Anti-Aging Advisor, Rich Lee as Biohacking Advisor, Miss Metaverse (Katie King) as Media Advisor, Ira Pastor as Regeneration Advisor, Giovanni Santostasi as Neuroscience Advisor, Elizabeth Parrish as Advocacy Advisor, Micah Redding as Advisor on Religion, and Paul Spiegel as Legal Advisor.
As the first major action under its new leadership, the U.S. Transhumanist Party developed a greatly expanded Version 2.0 of the Transhumanist Bill of Rights, which was adopted via an electronic vote of the members that occurred on December 25-31, 2016.. On December 12, 2018, Version 3.0 of the Transhumanist Bill of Rights was adopted as a result of a member vote held on December 2-9, 2018. The U.S. Transhumanist Party held six Platform votes during January, February, March, May, June, and November 2017, on the basis of which 82 Platform planks were adopted.  The U.S. Transhumanist Party holds votes of its members electronically and is the first political party in the United States to use ranked-preference voting method with instant runoffs in its internal ballots.
In November 2016 the U.S. Transhumanist Party became open for free membership through an electronic application form. Membership is open to all individuals who are capable of forming a political opinion, irrespective of their age, residence, or hypothetically even their species. 
In May 2018 the New York Times reported the U.S. Transhumanist Party as having 880 members.  On July 7, 2018, the U.S. Transhumanist Party reached 1,000 members and released a concise, high-level demographic analysis of its membership: The U.S. Transhumanist Party’s First 1,000 Members: An Aggregate Demographic Analysis. This analysis showed that 704 members, or 70.4%, were eligible to vote in the United States, whereas 296 or 29.6% were Allied Members. The plurality of United States Members of the U.S. Transhumanist Party reside in California, while other states of prominent member presence include New York, Florida, Arizona, Ohio, Texas, Colorado, and Washington. Allied Members have a widespread international presence and representation on almost all continents. Among non-U.S. members, the largest numbers appear to be in the United Kingdom, Canada, and India.
The U.S. Transhumanist Party had 1,187 members by the second anniversary of Chairman Stolyarov's tenure.  One year later, as of November 18, 2019, the U.S. Transhumanist Party membership count had grown to 1,859. 
The U.S. Transhumanist Party has hosted several expert discussion panels, on subjects including artificial intelligence , life extension , art and transhumanism , and cryptocurrencies . Chairman Gennady Stolyarov II has also hosted in-person Enlightenment Salons, which were aimed at cross-disciplinary discussion of transhumanist and life-extensionist ideas under the auspices of the U.S. Transhumanist Party.   
On August 11, 2017, at the RAAD Fest 2017 conference in San Diego, California, Chairman Gennady Stolyarov II gave an address entitled "The U.S. Transhumanist Party: Pursuing a Peaceful Political Revolution for Longevity", which provided an overview of the U.S. Transhumanist Party's key principles and objectives.
On November 9, 2017, in a virtual presentation at the TransVision 2017 conference in Brussels, Belgium, Chairman Stolyarov gave an overview of the U.S. Transhumanist Party's achievements in 2017 and future aspirations.
From September 2017 the Party has appointed a number of international ambassadors, for countries including Belarus, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Egypt, England, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Nigeria, Scotland, and Spain.
On March 31, Chairman Gennady Stolyarov II was interviewed by Nikola Danaylov, a.k.a. Socrates, of Singularity.FM during a three-hour session, the longest of all of Danaylov's interviews. The interview covered both some of Mr. Stolyarov’s personal work and ideas, such as the illustrated children’s book Death is Wrong, as well as the efforts and aspirations of the U.S. Transhumanist Party. The conversation also delved into such subjects as the definition of transhumanism, intelligence and morality, the technological Singularity or Singularities, health and fitness, and even cats.
On October 7, 2018, the U.S. Transhumanist Party marked its four-year anniversary. On September 21, 2018, at RAAD Fest 2018 in San Diego, CA, Chairman Gennady Stolyarov II spoke in advance of this occasion by highlighting the U.S. Transhumanist Party’s recent achievements.
On the next day, September 22, 2018, representatives of the U.S. Transhumanist Party, Chairman Gennady Stolyarov II, Director of Marketing Arin Vahanian, and California Transhumanist Party Chairman Newton Lee met during RAAD Fest in order to provide an overview of recent efforts and future prospects, discuss approaches to advocacy with several leading transhumanist public figures, and field audience questions regarding the transhumanist movement and its goals.
During the 2018 election season, the U.S. Transhumanist Party endorsed two candidates, James D. Schultz and Gennady Stolyarov II.   Schultz ran for New York State Assembly District 2 but fell slightly short of the 1,500 petition signatures required by New York law for ballot access, obtaining 1,239 petition signatures before ending his campaign on August 21, 2018.  Stolyarov ran for a spot on the Board of Trustees of the Indian Hills General Improvement District (IHGID), located in Carson City and Douglas County, Nevada. Stolyarov did not win a seat on the IHGID Board but received 520 votes out of 2,024 residents who cast their ballots, meaning that 25.7% of the voters cast affirmative ballots in his favor.
In July 2019 Chairman Stolyarov's 60-page essay, “The United States Transhumanist Party and the Politics of Abundance”, was published as Chapter 5 of The Transhumanism Handbook, a major compilation of transhumanist thought edited by Newton Lee. In this essay, Stolyarov offers a detailed explanation of the premises behind transhumanist politics and what the U.S. Transhumanist Party stands for, in a narrative that is current through year-end 2018. Subsequently, on August 24, 2019, in Burbank, California, Stolyarov spoke to update the audience on recent U.S. Transhumanist Party activities in 2019.
Legislative Advocacy for Cyborg Rights
In 2019 the U.S. Transhumanist Party achieved its first success at influencing legislation. On March 4, 2019, Nevada State Assemblyman Richard "Skip" Daly (D - Sparks) proposed an amendment to his own Assembly Bill 226, a bill which was originally intended to prohibit forced implantation of a “microchip or other identifying marker”, but which, in its amended form, would have prohibited virtually all voluntary microchip implantation as well. The concern regarding Assembly Bill 226 was originally raised by Transhumanist Party of Colorado founder R. Nicholas Starr on March 14, 2019, in an article on the U.S. Transhumanist Party website, where Starr wrote that "Mr. Daly’s concern, while appearing noble on the surface, has no basis in reality, but rather arises out of fear and fiction."
In response to concerns about Assembly Bill 226, the U.S. Transhumanist Party mobilized the transhumanist community to participate in the legislative process and express opposition to the prohibition on voluntary microchip implants. On April 26, 2019, cyborg magician Anastasia Synn, who was informed of Assembly Bill 226 by the U.S. Transhumanist Party, testified in opposition to Assembly Bill 226 at a hearing of the Senate Judiciary Committee.
The Cyborg and Transhumanist Forum at the Nevada Legislature on May 15, 2019 - co-organized by the U.S. Transhumanist Party, the Nevada Transhumanist Party, the Future Grind podcast, Anastasia Synn, and the Nevada Technology Association - was the first time that an official transhumanist event was held within the halls of a State Legislature. U.S. Transhumanist Party Chairman Gennady Stolyarov II, R. Nicholas Starr, and Anastasia Synn represented perspectives from the transhumanist movement and discussed and demonstrated a variety of emerging technologies at the Cyborg and Transhumanist Forum. The event featured a discussion of technological augmentations, transhumanist philosophy, the uses of technology to overcome disabilities and extend longevity and health, the directions of technological evolution in the coming decades, and the policy implications stemming from these developments.
Assembly Bill 226 was subsequently further amended to restore the original scope of the bill and only apply the prohibition to coercive microchip implants, while specifically exempting microchip implants voluntarily received by an individual from the prohibition. The scope of the prohibition was also narrowed by removing the reference to “any other person” and applying the prohibition to an enumerated list of entities who may not require others to be microchipped: state officers and employees, employers as a condition of employment, and persons in the business of insurance or bail. These changes alleviated the vast majority of the concerns within the transhumanist and cyborg communities about Assembly Bill 226. This amended version of Assembly Bill 223 passed the Nevada State Senate on May 23, 2019, and was signed into law by Nevada Governor Steve Sisolak on June 3, 2019.
2019 Electronic Primary
On April 5, 2019, the U.S. Transhumanist Party issued its call for candidates wishing to run for President of the United States in the 2020 elections and seeking an endorsement from the USTP. Ultimately nine candidates put themselves forward: Johannon Ben Zion , Kimberly Forsythe , Kristan T. Harris , Rachel Haywire , Charles Holsopple , John Kerecz , Jonathan Schattke , Matt Taylor , and Vrillon a.k.a. Nic Nassuet. Ben Zion, Haywire, and Holsopple had entered the race by May 2019, whereas Harris, Taylor, Kerecz, Vrillon, Schattke, and Forsythe entered shortly after the announcement by the U.S. Transhumanist Party on August 6, 2019, of a six-week extension of the campaign season and call for new candidates to put themselves forward.  Forsythe withdrew her candidacy on September 24, 2019, for professional reasons, but the other eight candidates who participated in the debates remained in the race to its conclusion.
Four virtual debates were held during the course of the 2019 U.S. Transhumanist Party / Transhuman Party Presidential Primary.
The Transhumanist Party Presidential Primary attracted media attention from BioEdge and the Milwaukee Record. After a protracted primary process, Johannon Ben Zion was elected as the party's nominee during a voting period that lasted between 8:30 p.m. Pacific Time on September 21, 2019, and 6:00 p.m. on September 30, 2019. On October 1, 2019, the U.S. Transhumanist Party published comprehensive results of its ranked-preference voting process, including an anonymized record of the complete individual votes cast.
At the fourth RAAD Fest in October 2019 in Las Vegas, Nevada, Chairman Gennady Stolyarov II delivered an overview of the U.S. Transhumanist Party 2019 Electronic Primary and introduced Johannon Ben Zion, the winning candidate of that primary election and the U.S. Transhumanist Party's 2020 nominee for President of the United States.
At RAAD Fest 2019, it was announced that film producer, entrepreneur, and longevity organizer Charlie Kam became Ben Zion's running mate. After winning the primary, Ben Zion filed his candidacy with the Federal Election Commission (FEC) in October 2019. On October 19, 2019, Ben Zion spoke to the DC Transhumanists meetup in Arlington, VA. On November 3, 2019 he spoke at the Foresight Institute's Vision Weekend Event in San Francisco. On November 24, 2019 he spoke to undergraduates at Princeton University as part of the Princeton Envision conference.
2020 Presidential Candidacy of Charlie Kam
On June 11, 2020, the U.S. Transhumanist Party announced, as part of a major internal reorganization, that Johannon Ben Zion was no longer its endorsed Presidential candidate and that "the Officers of the USTP have determined to release Mr. Ben Zion from any of his roles and affiliations with the USTP, as well as from any previous endorsements by the USTP." Consequently, Charlie Kam became the U.S. Transhumanist Party's endorsed Presidential nominee.  On June 21, 2020, Charlie Kam provided remarks at a discussion panel hosted by the London Futurists on how transhumanist politics can advance liberty, education, and technological progress.
Transhuman Party dispute
In October 2017 Hank Pellissier founded the Transhuman Party following a trademark dispute with Zoltan Isvan's continued ownership of the 'Transhumanist Party' trademark. In response to Pellissier, the U.S. Transhumanist Party published its FAQ, where a significant portion was devoted to explaining the history of the U.S. Transhumanist Party, its current interactions with Zoltan Istvan and the scope of his involvement, and the reasons for his continued ownership of the 'Transhumanist Party' trademark.
The Transhuman Party became defunct in late 2017 due to lack of activity and its domain name and Facebook page were acquired by the US Transhumanist Party.
The various policy points of the U.S. Transhumanist Party's platform have attracted both praise and criticism from sociologist Steve Fuller. For example, Fuller has praised the centrality of morphological freedom in the Transhumanist Bill of Rights, but on the other hand he has also written that the party is too critical of the U.S. Department of Defense, which he argues could be an ally for some transhumanist initiatives such as human enhancement and existential-risk reduction. In 2018 party as a whole was reviewed favorably as an example of a successful "niche" party by Krisztian Szabados, a director at the Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics at Harvard University.
- Arizona Transhumanist Party
- California Transhumanist Party
- Transhumanist Party of Colorado
- Kentucky Transhumanist Party
- Transhumanist Party of Illinois
- Transhumanist Party of Texas
- Nevada Transhumanist Party
- New York Transhumanist Party
- North Carolina Transhumanist Party
- Maryland Transhumanist Party
- Michigan Transhumanist Party
- Transhumanist Party of Virginia
- Washington, D.C. Transhumanist Party
- Washington State Transhumanist Party
- transhumanistparty.org (old site)
- transhumanist-party.org (new site)
- transhumanistparty.slack.com on Slack
- Google Groups discussion
- /r/TranshumanistParty on Reddit
- Facebook group
- TranshumanParty on Twitter (old)
- USTranshumanist on Twitter (new)
- Transhumanism Political Party Reaches First Birthday
- I Quit the USA Transhumanist Party. Why? Zoltan’s Non-Inclusive Leadership
- Zoltan Istvan does not speak for the Transhumanist Party
- Forthcoming Transitional Period of the Transhumanist Party
- Constitution of the U.S. Transhumanist Party
- Transhumanist Bill of Rights – Version 2.0
- Transhumanist Bill of Rights – Version 3.0
- U.S. Transhumanist Party Platform
- Stolyarov II, Gennady (25 November 2017). U.S. Transhumanist Party Chairman's Anniversary Message. "We are the first political party in the United States to use ranked-preference voting on its internal ballots."
- Stolyarov II, Gennady (25 November 2017). U.S. Transhumanist Party Chairman's Anniversary Message. "We are the only political party in the world – to our knowledge – which extends membership to anyone capable of forming a reasoned political opinion – including children and citizens of other countries, who may become Allied Members."]
- U.S. Transhumanist Party FAQ. Response to the question, "You talk about accepting aliens as members of the U.S. Transhumanist Party. Did you watch too much Sci-Fi?"
- Bromwich, Jonah (19 May 2018). "Death of a Biohacker". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 July 2018. "Gennady Stolyarov II, the chairman of the United States Transhumanist Party, a political organization with close to 880 members that supports life extension through science and technology, had been corresponding with Mr. Traywick since November 2015."
- Stolyarov II, Gennady (18 November 2018). U.S. Transhumanist Party Chairman’s Second Anniversary Message. "While 2017 was a year of focusing on developing our now-extensive Platform, 2018 was characterized by increased outreach, more frequent events and interviews, steady membership growth (doubling our membership to 1,187 as of this writing)".
- Stolyarov II, Gennady (18 November 2019). U.S. Transhumanist Party / Transhuman Party Chairman’s Third Anniversary Message. "Membership growth has continued to be a core focus of the USTP leadership over the past year. As of this writing, the USTP has 1,859 members, as compared to 1,187 one year ago."
- U.S. Transhumanist Party Discussion Panel on Artificial Intelligence – January 8, 2017
- U.S. Transhumanist Party Discussion Panel on Life Extension - February 18, 2017
- U.S. Transhumanist Party Discussion Panel on Art and Transhumanism - November 18, 2017
- U.S. Transhumanist Party / Institute of Exponential Sciences Discussion Panel on Cryptocurrencies
- Second Enlightenment Salon - Gennady Stolyarov II, Bill Andrews, Bobby Ridge, and Scott Jurgens Discuss the Convergence of Technological Advances
- Third Enlightenment Salon - Gennady Stolyarov II, Bill Andrews, Bobby Ridge, and Mihoko Sekido Discuss Science-Based Advocacy of Transhumanism and Health Living
- Fourth Enlightenment Salon – Political Segment: Discussion on Artificial Intelligence in Politics, Voting Systems, and Democracy
- U.S. Transhumanist Party Chairman Gennady Stolyarov II Interviewed by Nikola Danaylov of Singularity.FM
- The U.S. Transhumanist Party Endorses James D. Schultz for New York State Assembly District 2. (12 April 2018).
- U.S. Transhumanist Party Unanimously Endorses Gennady Stolyarov II for the Board of Trustees of the Indian Hills General Improvement District. (11 September 2018).
- U.S. Transhumanist Party Endorsed Candidate James D. Schultz Ends His Campaign for New York State Assembly District 2. (22 August 2018).
- Ep. 28 - The State of Transhumanist Politics with Gennady Stolyarov II
- U.S. Transhumanist Party Chairman's Second Anniversary Message. 18 November 2018. "I ultimately obtained 520 votes out of 2,024 residents who cast their ballots. While I did not win a seat on the Board, 25.7% – more than a quarter – of the voters cast affirmative ballots in my favor."
- Stolyarov II, Gennady. (15 July 2019) “The United States Transhumanist Party and the Politics of Abundance”.
- Progress in the Politics of Abundance - Presentation by Gennady Stolyarov II
- Starr, R. Nicholas. (14 March 2019) "Bait and Switch on Nevada AB226".
- Stolyarov II, Gennady. (27 May 2019) Video of Cyborg and Transhumanist Forum at the Nevada State Legislature – May 15, 2019. "The Cyborg and Transhumanist Forum at the Nevada Legislature on May 15, 2019, marked a milestone for the U.S. Transhumanist Party and the Nevada Transhumanist Party. This was the first time that an official transhumanist event was held within the halls of a State Legislature, in one of the busiest areas of the building, within sight of the rooms where legislative committees met."
- Stolyarov II, Gennady. (27 May 2019) Video of Cyborg and Transhumanist Forum at the Nevada State Legislature – May 15, 2019.
- Amendment to Assembly Bill 226 to remove the prohibition against voluntary microchip implants
- Assembly Bill 226, as Enrolled NELIS. 80th (2019) Session. Nevada State Legislature.
- Stolyarov II, Gennady. (5 April 2019) "U.S. Transhumanist Party / Transhuman Party Call for 2020 Presidential Candidates and Outline of 2019 Endorsement and Primary Process"
- Johannon Ben Zion – Candidate in the 2019 U.S. Transhumanist Party / Transhuman Party Presidential Primary
- Kimberly Forsythe – Candidate in the 2019 U.S. Transhumanist Party / Transhuman Party Presidential Primary
- Kristan T. Harris – Candidate in the 2019 U.S. Transhumanist Party / Transhuman Party Presidential Primary
- Rachel Haywire – Candidate in the 2019 U.S. Transhumanist Party / Transhuman Party Presidential Primary
- Charles Holsopple – Candidate in the 2019 U.S. Transhumanist Party / Transhuman Party Presidential Primary
- John J. Kerecz – Candidate in the 2019 U.S. Transhumanist Party / Transhuman Party Presidential Primary
- Jon Schattke – Candidate in the 2019 U.S. Transhumanist Party / Transhuman Party Presidential Primary
- Matt Taylor – Candidate in the 2019 U.S. Transhumanist Party / Transhuman Party Presidential Primary
- Vrillon – Candidate in the 2019 U.S. Transhumanist Party / Transhuman Party Presidential Primary
- Stolyarov II, Gennady. (6 August 2019) "U.S. Transhumanist Party / Transhuman Party Extends the 2019 Presidential Primary Campaign and Voting Season".
- U.S. Transhumanist Party 2019 Electronic Primary Results – Johannon Ben Zion Endorsed as Candidate for President of the United States
- BioEdge: Transhuman in the race for Transhumanist Party leadership
- Krulos, Tea. (19 September 2019) "Long live candidate Harris, Milwaukee's U.S. Transhumanist Party presidential hopeful". Milwaukee Record.
- Pearlman, Alex. (17 October 2019 "Would You Vote for a President Who Promised Eternal Life?". Medium.
- U.S. Transhumanist Party 2019 Electronic Primary Results – Johannon Ben Zion Endorsed as Candidate for President of the United States
- Gennady Stolyarov II and Johannon Ben Zion at RAAD Fest 2019 - U.S. Transhumanist Primary Results
- Zion, Johannon Ben. Federal Election Commission Form 2 - Statement of Candidacy.
- Meetup - October 19, 2019. Johannon Ben Zion - The Futurist New Deal for America
- Princeton Envision Conference
- 11 June, 2020. United States Transhumanist Party Announces Major Internal Reorganization and Launch of the Charlie Kam 2020 U.S. Presidential Campaign.
- Politics for greater liberty: Transhumanist perspectives.
- U.S. Transhumanist Party FAQ
- Stolyarov, Gennady. THE U.S. TRANSHUMANIST PARTY / TRANSHUMAN PARTY: THE LAST, BEST HOPE FOR TRANSHUMANIST POLITICS
- Fuller, Steve (19 December 2016). "Morphological Freedom and the Question of Responsibility and Representation in Transhumanism". Confero: Essays on Education, Philosophy and Politics. 4 (2): 33–45.doi:10.3384/confero.2001-4562.161206.
- Fuller, Steve (6 June 2017). "Philosopher's Corner: Does This Pro-science Party Deserve Our Votes? | Issues in Science and Technology". Issues in Science and Technology. 33 (3).
- Szabados, Krisztian (2018). "Transhumanist Parties as Niche Parties". Journal of Posthuman Studies. 2 (2): 213. doi:10.5325/jpoststud.2.2.0007.